Sym pathetic division of autonom ic nervous
system, 210, 211f
Symphysis, 136, 137f
Symporters, 447
Synapses, 198-199, 199f
Synarthrosis, 136
Synchondrosis, 136, 137f
Syndesmosis, 136, 137f
Synergists, 169
Synovial fluid, 83, 136
Synovial joints, 136, 137f, 138f-139f,
140f-141f
Synovial m em branes, 82, 83, 136
Synthesis reactions, 30f, 31
Syphilis, 486
Systemic lupus erythem atosus
(SLE), 361
Systole, 316
T
T cells, 352, 353f, 354-356
T lymphocytes, 354
T-tubule, 158
Talus, 133
Target cells, 255, 255f
Tarsals, 133
Tastants, 234
Taste pores, 234
Tears, 235
Teeth, 415t
Telomeres, 84, 84f
Telophase, 67, 68f
Temporal bones, 123
Temporal sum m ation, 164
Temporalis muscle, 173t
Tem porom andibular joints (TMJ), 123
Tendons, 136, 168
Tensor fasciae latae, 183t
Teres m ajor muscle, 179t
Teres m inor muscle, 179t
Term inal ganglia, 213
Terminator, 65
Tertiary structures, 38f
Testes, 470, 471f
Testosterone, 36, 272, 470, 472f, 475
Tetanus, 164, 164f
Tetrads, 70
Thalassem ia, 300
Therm ic effect of food, 424
Thick filaments, 157f, 158
Thick skin, 94
Thigh muscles, 183t
Thin filaments, 157f, 158
Thin skin, 94
Third-degree burns, 103f
Thoracic aorta, 321
Thoracic duct, 344, 347f
Thoracic vertebrae, 127
Thorax muscles, 175, 175f, 175t, 176,
176f, 176t
Threshold, 197
Throm bus, 294
Thymosin, 274f
Thymus, 274f, 344, 347f
Thyroid gland, 262-264, 262f
Thyroid horm one secretion,
263-264, 264f
Thyrotropin-releasing horm one (TRH),
259, 259t, 263
Thyroxine, 262
Tibia, 133
Tibial tuberosity, 133
Tibialis anterior, 184t
Tibialis posterior, 184t
Tidal volume, 378, 379f
Tight cell junctions, 72
Tissues
aging and, 84
connective tissue, 76-80
cultures and, 83
engineering and, 83
epithelial tissue, 72-76
hypoxia and, 292
m uscular tissue, 81
nervous tissue, 81
tissue level, 2f
types of, 71-72
Toes, muscles that move, 184, 184f, 184t
Tongue, 234, 234f, 415t
Tonsils, 347f
Total lung capacity, 378
Trabeculae, 117
Trachea, 373
Trans fatty acids, 36
Transcellular route, reabsorption, 447
Transcription, 65, 65f
Transcutaneous electric nerve stim ulator
(TENS), 231
Transderm al patches, 102
Transduction, 236
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 67
Transferrin, 293f
Transitional cells, 73
Translation, 66f, 67
Transport proteins, 59
Transportation, blood and, 288
Transverse abdominis muscle, 177t
Transverse arch, 133
Transverse plane, 12, 12f
Transverse tubule, 158
Trapezius, 176t
Triceps brachii, 180t
Tricyclic antidepressants, 231
Triglycerides, 36, 37f
Triiodothyronine, 262
Tripeptides, 38
Trophoblast, 488
Tropomyosin, 157f, 169
Troponin, 157f, 169
True ribs, 131
Trypsin, 410
Tubal ligation, 485
Tubular reabsorption, 444-445
Tubular secretion, 444-445
Tunica externa, 326f
Tunica intim a, 326f
Tunica media, 326f
Twitch, muscle, 163-165, 163f, 164f
Type 1 diabetes, 361, 422-424
Type 2 diabetes, 422-424
Type II alveolar cells, 381
U
Ulna, 132, 180, 180f, 180t
U lnar veins, 328
Ultrasound, 15f
Um bilical cord, 491, 491f
U nipolar neurons, 195
Universal solvent, 31
U pper body, 130-131, 130f-131f
U pper limb muscles, 179, 179f, 179t
U pper respiratory tract, 372-374, 372f
U reters, 450f
U rethra, 351f, 450f
U rinary bladder
m icturition reflex and, 452, 452f
structures of, 450, 450f-451f
tem porary storage and, 450
urethral structures and, 451, 451f
U rinary system.
See also
Kidneys
abnorm al constituents in urine, 449t
body fluid composition and, 453-458
com ponents of, 438, 439f
functions of, 5f
glom erular filtration and, 446-447, 446f
nephron loop, 448-449, 448f
reabsorption and secretion, 447-448
urine characteristics, 449t
urine form ation and, 444-445, 445f
U rinary tract infections, 451
U rination, 452
Urobilinogen, 293f, 449t
U terine cavity, 476
U terine tubes, 476, 477f
U terus, 476, 477f
UV radiation, 105-106
V
Vaccination, 360
Vagina, 351f, 476, 477f
Vaginal pouch, 485
Valence shell, 25
Valves, heart, 312
Vas deferens, 470
Vascular resistance, blood pressure
and, 333
Vascular spasm, 294, 295f
Vascular tunic, 236
Vasectomy, 485
568 Index
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