Serosa, 82-83, 402, 403f
Serous fluid, 83
Serous m em brane, 13, 82-83
Serratus anterior, 176t
Sertoli cells, 472, 472f
Serum , blood, 300
Sex hormone secretions, 272-273, 273f
Sexual characteristics, 272
Sexual function developm ent, 475
Sexual intercourse, 470
Sexual reproduction.
See
Female
reproductive system; Male
reproductive system
Sexually transm itted diseases (STDs), 485
Shaft, 96
Shock, 335
Short bones, 114
Shoulder muscles, 176, 176f, 176t, 179,
179f, 179t
Sickle cell anem ia, 300
Sighing, 380t
Simple epithelium , 73, 73t
Skeletal muscle pum p, 326, 327f
Skeletal muscle tissue, 154, 154f
Skeletal muscles
abdominal, 177
arm, 180
contraction of, 160-163
excitation-contraction coupling in,
159, 161f
forearm , 181
gluteal region, 182
head and neck, 173-174
leg, 184
lower body, 182-184
muscles to bones relationship,
168-169, 168f
nam ing characteristics and, 172t
neck and back, 178
principal muscles, 170f-171f
shoulder and upper limb, 179
thorax, 175-176
Skeletal system
aging and, 144-145
articulations and, 136-142, 137f
axial and appendicular skeletons, 122, 122f
basic functions of, 114
bone mass and, 144
bone structure and, 114—117
cranial bones, 123, 124f-125f
facial bones, 123-126
functions of, 4f
joint m ovem ents and, 138-142,
138f-139f
lower body, 132-133, 134f-135f
skull features, 126-127
synovial joint classification, 140-142,
140f-141f
upper body, 130-131, 130f-131f
vertebral column, 127, 128f-129f
Skin
aging and, 105-106, 105f
artificial skin, 104
burns and, 102-103, 103f
calcium hom eostasis and, 102
cancer and, 105-106, 106f
color of, 95-96
derm is, 93, 95
epidermis, 93-95
glands of, 98, 98f
innate im m unity and, 350f
m ultiple layers of, 93-95, 94f
sensation and, 102, 102f
skin grafts, 104
wound healing and, 100, 100f-101f
Skull
anatom y of, 124f-125f
head form ation and, 123-126
unique features of, 126-127
Sleep apnea, 380
Sliding filam ent theory, 158-159, 158f
Slow oxidative fibers, 165
Small intestine
digestion and, 408-412, 408f-409f
functions of, 274f, 401f, 415t
Small saphenous veins, 328
Smoking, respiratory system and,
391-392, 391f
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum , 55
Smooth muscle tissue, 155, 155f
appearance of, 165-166, 166f
visceral and m ulti-unit, 166, 166f
Sneezing, 380t
Sobbing, 380t
Sodium-potassium pumps, 62, 62f
Soleus, 184t
Solids, 22
Solubility, 382
Solutes, 31, 57
Solutions, 31
Solvents, 31, 57
Somatic cells, 67
Somatic nervous system, 193, 208, 208f, 210t
Somatic senses, 228-232, 228f
Som atosensory receptors, 193
Special movements, joints, 139, 139f
Special senses, 228f, 232-234
Speech, head and neck muscles and,
173-174, 173f, 173t
Sperm, 470, 472-475, 473f, 474f
Sperm atogenesis, 473-475, 473f
Sperm atogonia, 472, 472f
Spermicides, 485
Spermiogenesis, 473
Sphenoid bone, 123
Sphenoidal sinuses, 123
Spinal cord
ascending and descending pathways
through, 207, 207t
brain com m unication and, 206-208, 206f
Spinal nerves, 216-218, 216f—217f, 218t
Spine, muscles that move, 178, 178f, 178t
Spirogram, 378
Spirometer, 378
Spleen, 344, 347f, 349, 349f
Spongy bone, 117
Sports drinks, 34
Squamous cell carcinoma, 105
Squamous cells, 72
Squamous suture, 126
Starches, 36
Static equilibrium , 244-245, 244f-245f
Steady state, 9
Stem cells, 94, 281f, 290-291
Stercobilin, 293f
Sterilization, 485
Sternocleidom astoid muscles, 178t, 377f
Sternum , 131
Steroid hormones, 255, 255f
Steroids, 36, 37f
Stimuli, 197
Stomach
digestion and, 406-408, 406f-407f
functions of, 274f, 400f, 415t
Stratified epithelium , 73, 73t
Stratum basale, 94
Stratum corneum , 94
Stratum granulosum , 94
Stratum lucidum, 94
Stratum spinosum, 94
Stress, 272, 275-277, 276f
Striae, 95
Striated muscle, 154
Stroke volume, 318
Styloid process, 123
Subclavian veins, 328
Subcutaneous layer, 93
Submucosa, 402, 403f
Subscapularis muscle, 179t
Substrates, 39
Sucrose, 35f
Sudoriferous glands, 98, 98f
Sunscreens, 106
Superior m esenteric artery, 322
Superior oblique muscle, 174t
Superior phrenic arteries, 322
Superior rectus muscle, 174t
Superior vena cava, 328
Superoxide, 29
Supinator muscle, 180t
Supporting cells, 232
Suprarenal arteries, 322
Supraspinatus muscle, 179t
Supraventricular tachycardia, 316
Surfactant, 374
Suspensory ligam ents of the breast,
478, 479f
Suture, 126, 137f
Swallowing, 405, 405f
Index 567
previous page 602 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online next page 604 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off