Pronator teres, 180t
Prophase, 67, 69f
Proprioceptor stim ulation, breathing
and, 388
Proprioceptors, 230, 334
Prostaglandins, 275f, 430, 498
Prostate gland, 470
Protease inhibitors, 362
Proteases, 55
Proteasom es, 55
Protein anion concentrations, 454-455, 454f
Proteins
buffer system, 459f
creation of, 64-67
functions of, 36-39, 38f
m etabolization and, 421
Protons, 24
Proxim al convoluted tubule, 442
Pseudopods, 63
Pseudostratified epithelium , 73, 73t
Psoas major, 178t
Puberty, 502
Pubic symphysis, 132
Pudendum , 478
Pulm onary circulation, 330, 330f
Pulm onary diseases, 391
Pulm onary edema, 391
Pulm onary function tests, 378, 379f
Pulm onary infections, 391
Pum ps, 62, 62f
Pupils, 236
Pus, 353f
Pyrogens, 430
Pyruvic acid, 162f, 422
Q
Q uadratus lum borum , 178t
Quadriceps group, 183t
Q uaternary structures, 38f
R
Radial veins, 328
R adiant energy, 23
Radiographs, 15f
Radioisotopes, 25, 25f
Radius, 132, 180, 180f, 180t
Reabsorption, 447-448, 448f
R eceptor-m ediated endocytosis, 63-64
Receptors, 8, 63, 229-230, 229f
Rectus abdominis, 177f
Rectus femoris, 183t
Red blood cells
com ponents of, 288-289, 289f
form ation and destruction, 292-293,
292f, 293f
osmosis and, 61, 61f
structure of, 290f
in urine, 449t
Red bone marrow, 114, 291-293, 291f,
344, 347f
Red pulp, 349, 349f
Reduction process, 120
Referred pain, 230, 230f
Reflex arc, 218-219, 219f
Reflexes, 218-219
Refraction, 238
Regulation, blood and, 288
Relaxation period, muscle twitch and,
163, 163f
Relaxin, 477f, 496
Remodeling, bone, 119, 121f
Renal arteries, 322
Renal corpuscle, 442
Renal failure, 462
Renal pelvis, 440
Renal vein, 440
Renin, 457f
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,
270, 270f, 456-458, 457f
Repolarization, 160
Reproduction.
See
Female reproductive
system; Male reproductive system
Reproductive cycle, 482-484, 483f
Residual volume (RV), 378, 379f
Resistance reaction, 275-277, 276f
Respiration, 375, 382-385, 383f
R espiratory center, breathing regulation
and, 386-389, 387f
R espiratory distress syndrome, 381, 498
R espiratory pum p, 327, 327f
R espiratory system
aging and, 391, 391f
behavioral activities and, 391
brain and breathing, 386-389, 387f
breathing patterns and, 380
breathing process and, 374-380,
376f-377f
diseases and, 391
functions of, 5f
internal and external respiration,
382-385, 383f
lower respiratory tract, 373-374, 373f
modified respiratory movements, 380t
physical activity and, 390, 390f
respiration and, 374
smoking and, 391-392, 391f
spirom eter and, 378
upper respiratory tract, 372-374, 372f
Responsiveness, 6, 7f
Resting m em brane potential, 197
Restrictive pulm onary diseases, 379f, 391
Reticular region, 95
Reticulocyte, 292
Reticulocyte tests, 301t
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 362
Reversible reactions, 30f, 31
Reye’s syndrome, 430
Rh blood groups, 296-298, 297f
Rh incompatibility, 298
R heum atoid arthritis, 145
Rhodopsin, 239
Ribonuclease, 410
Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 41, 42t
Ribosomes, 54, 54f
Ribs, 131
Right lymphatic duct, 344
Right subclavian artery, 322
RNA polymerase, 65
Rods, 236
Root, 96
Rotation, joint, 139, 139f
Rough endoplasmic reticulum , 54
Rugae, 450f
Rule of nines, 103f
S
Sacrum, 127, 132
Saddle joints, 141, 141f
Sagittal plane, 12, 12f
Sagittal suture, 126
Salivary glands, 415t
Salts, 32, 32f
Sarcomeres, 156f
Sarcoplasmic reticulum , 55
Sartorius, 183t
Satellite cells, 196
Scalene muscles, 377f
Scalp hair, 97
Scapula, 132
Schwann cells, 196
Scoliosis, 127
Scrotum, 470
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 274
Sebaceous glands, 98, 98f
Second-degree burns, 103f
Second messenger, 256
Secondary hyposecretion, 257
Secondary lym phatic organs, 344
Secondary lym phatic tissues, 348
Secondary oocyte, 481
Secondary structures, 38f
Secretin, 274f, 412, 412t
Secretion, 447-448, 448f
Sections, anatom ical, 10-11, 11f
Segm entations, 408
Selective permeability, 52
Sella turcica, 123
Semen, 470
Sem icircular canals, ear, 243
Sem im em branosus, 183t
Sem inal vesicles, 470
Sem iniferous tubules, 472, 472f
Sem itendinosus, 183t
Sensations, 228-229, 228f-229f
Sensory function, 193
Sensory neurons, 195
Sensory receptors, 195
Septic shock, 335
566 Index
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