O rbicularis oculi muscle, 173t
O rbicularis oris muscle, 173t
Organ level, hum an body and, 3f
Organelles, 50
Organic compounds, 34
Organisms, 3
O rganization levels, body structure and,
2f—3f, 3
Organs, 3
Organs of Corti, 243
O sm oreceptors, 456
Osmosis, 60-61, 60f, 61f
Osm otic pressure, 324
Osseous tissue, 116
Ossicles, 241
Ossification, 117, 117f
O steoarthritis, 145
Osteoblasts, 116
Osteoclasts, 117, 264
Osteocytes, 117
Osteogenic cells, 117
Osteons, 117
Osteoporosis, 144, 144f
Oval window, 243
Ovarian cycle, 481
Ovarian follicles, 480, 480f
Ovaries, 476, 477f
Ovulation, 273, 480, 482, 482f
Ovum, 481
Oxidases, 39, 55
Oxidation, 418
Oxidative phosphorylation, 56, 419, 419f
Oxygen, transportation of, 382-384,
384f-385f
Oxytocin, 260
P
Pacem aker cells, 167
Pacinian corpuscles, 102, 229
Pain, breathing and, 388
Pain m anagem ent, 231
Palatine bones, 123
Pancreas, 401f, 410, 410f, 415t
Pancreatic acinar cells, 410
Pancreatic amylase, 410
Pancreatic endocrine cells, 266-267, 266f
Pancreatic islets, 266
Pancreatic juice, 410
Pancreatic lipase, 410
Papilla of the hair, 96
Papillary region, 95
Paracellular route, reabsorption, 447
Parafollicular cells, 262
Paranasal sinuses, 126
Parasagittal plane, 12, 12f
Parasym pathetic division of autonom ic
nervous system, 212-213, 212f, 213t
Parathyroid glands, 119, 265, 265f
Parathyroid horm one, 265f, 448
Parietal bones, 123
Parietal layer, serous m em branes and, 83
Partial pressure, 382, 383f
Parturition, 498
Passive immunity, 360
Patella, 133
Pathogens, 348
Pathologists, 71
Pectineus, 183t
Pectoral girdle, 132
Pectoralis minor, 176t
Pedicles, 127
Pelvic brim, 132
Pelvic girdle, 132
Pelvis, 132-133, 133t
Pepsin, 406
Pepsinogen, 407f
Peptide bonds, 38, 38f
Perception, 228
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 298
Pericardium , 13, 83, 312
Perineum , 478
Periodic table of elem ents, 26
Periods, 26
Peripheral chem oreceptors, 388, 389f
Peripheral nervous system, 192-193,
192f, 193f
cranial nerves, 214-215, 214f, 215f
reflex arc and, 218-219, 219f
spinal nerves, 216-218, 216f-217f, 218t
Peripheral proteins, 52
Peristalsis, 166, 405
Peritoneal dialysis, 462
Peritoneum , 13, 402-403, 402f, 450f
Peroxisome, 55
pH buffer systems in body, 458-459, 459f
pH changes, 460, 460f-461f
pH scale, 32-33, 33f
Phagocytes, 352-353, 353f
Phagocytosis, 63, 63f, 352, 352f
Phagosomes, 63
Phalanges, 132
Pharynx, 373, 415t
Phosphate buffer system, 459f
Phospholipids, 36, 37f
Photopigm ents, 239
Photoreceptors, 236
Physical activity, respiratory actions and,
390, 390f
Physical changes, 22
Physical fitness, heart rate and, 319
Pineal gland, 274, 274f
Pinealocytes, 274
Pinocytosis, 63
Piriformis, 183t
Pituitary dwarfism, 260, 260f
Pituitary gland, 258-261, 261f, 263-264,
264f, 271, 271f, 272-273
Pivot joints, 140f, 141
Placenta, 275f, 491, 491f
Placental stage, labor and, 498
Plane joints, 140, 140f
Planes, anatom ical, 10-11, 11f
Plasma, 57, 288, 289f
Plasm a m em brane, 52, 52f
Plasmin, 294
Plasminogen, 294
Platelet plug, 294, 295f
Platelets, 289f, 290
Platysm a muscle, 173t
Pleura, 13, 83
Pleural cavity, 374
Pleural effusion, 378
Pleural m em brane, 374
Plexus, 216
Pluripotent stem cells, 291
Pneum otaxic area, 386
Pneum othorax, 378
Polar body, 481
Polar covalent bonds, 29
Polar molecules, 29, 29f
Polycythemia, 300
Polypeptides, 38
Polysaccharides, 35-36, 35f
Polyunsaturated fats, 36
Pontine center, 386
Popliteal veins, 328
Pores, 59
Portal vein, 330
Positive feedback system, 8-9, 9f
Post-term pregnancies, 500
Posterior intercostal arteries, 322
Posterior pituitary lobe, 258
Posterior tibial veins, 328
Postovulatory phase, reproductive cycle,
482-483, 482f
Postsynaptic neuron, 199
Potential energy, 22
Precapillary sphincter, 324
Pregnancy
embryonic germ layers, 490-492
embryonic phase, 488-490. 489f
fetal period, 492-496, 493f-495f
hormones and, 496
labor, 498-500, 499f
m other’s physiology and, 496
norm al fetal position, 497f
Prem ature ventricular contraction, 316
Prenatal developm ent, 475
Preovulatory phase, reproductive cycle,
482, 482f
Presynaptic neuron, 199
Prim ary gustatory area, 234
Prim ary hyposecretion, 257
Prim ary lymphatic organs, 344
Prim ary oocytes, 480
Prim e mover, muscle, 169
Pro-vitamins, 416
Progesterone, 272, 477f, 496
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH),
259, 259t
Index 565
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