M em branes, 82-83
M enarche, 502
M eninges, 200, 200f
M enopause, 144, 503
M enstrual phase, reproductive cycle,
482, 482f
M enstruation, 482, 482f
M ental foram ina, 126
M erkel (tactile) discs, 229
Mesenchyme, 117
M esoderm , 490-491
M esothelium , 83
M essenger RNA (mRNA), 65
M etabolic activities, hormones and
chemical levels and, 420-421
M etabolism, 6
M etabolization, nutrients and, 418-422
M etacarpals, 132
M etaphase, 67, 69f
M etastasization, 105
M etatarsals, 133
Micelles, 410
Microbes in urine, 449t
M icrobial infection, 102
M icrofilaments, 53
Microglia, 196
M icrotubules, 53
Microvilli, 53
M icturition reflex, 452, 452f
Milk ducts, 479f
M ineralocorticoids, 270-271
M inerals, 416
Minoxidil (Rogaine), 97
M inute ventilation (MV), 379
M itochondria, 56, 56f
M itochondrial crista, 56
M itochondrial m atrix, 56
Mitosis, 67-71, 68f-69f, 71t
Modified respiratory movements, 380, 380t
M olecular formula, 28
Molecules, 3, 28-29, 28f
Moles, 95, 106, 106f
Monocytes, 289f, 290
M onosaccharides, 34, 35f
M onounsaturated fats, 36
Mons pubis, 477f
M orula, 488, 489f
M otor function, 193
M otor neurons, 195
M otor unit, 164
M outh
anatom y of, 400f
digestion and, 404, 404f, 415t
innate im m unity and, 350f
M ovement, 6, 7f
Mucosa, 82, 402, 403f
Mucous m em brane, 82
M ulti-unit smooth muscle tissue, 166, 166f
M ultiple sclerosis, 361
M ultipolar neurons, 195
Muscle contraction, sliding filam ent theory
and, 158-159, 158f
Muscle tone, 164
M uscular system
cardiac muscle tissue, 155, 167, 167f
functions of, 4f
m ovem ent and, 156-165
muscle fibers, 81, 157-158, 165
muscle twitch, 163-165, 163f, 164f
muscular tissue, 72, 80f, 81, 154-155, 154f
nerve signals, 160-163
skeletal muscle tissue, 154
skeletal muscles, 168-184
sliding filament theory and, 158-159, 158f
smooth muscle tissue, 155, 165-166
Muscularis, 402, 403f
M utation, 42
Myelin, 195
Myeloid stem cells, 290f, 291
Myocardial infarction, 319
Myocardial ischemia, 319
Myocardium, 312
Myofibrils, 156f-157f
Myofilaments, 158
Myoglobin, 162f, 163
M yom etrium, 476, 477f
Myosin, 157f, 169
MyPyramid nutritional guidelines, 416, 417f
Myxedema, 264
N
Nails, 99, 99f
Nasal bones, 123
Nasal epithelium , 373
Naturally acquired active immunity, 360
Naturally acquired passive immunity, 360
Neck and back muscles, 178, 178f, 178t
Negative feedback system, 8-9, 9f
Nephritis, 462
Nephron loop, 442, 448-449, 448f
Nephrons, 442, 442f-443f, 444-445, 445f
Nerve cells, 81, 81f
Nerve endings, 95
Nerve fibers, 195
Nerve signals, skeletal muscle contraction
and, 160-163
Nervous system
action potentials and, 197, 197f
autonom ic nervous system, 208-213
central nervous system, 200-208
functions of, 4f, 192-193, 193f
neuroglia and, 196, 196f
neuron com m unication, 100f
neurons and, 192-195, 194f
peripheral nervous system, 214-219
som atic nervous system, 208, 208f, 210t
structural overview of, 192f
synapses, 198-199, 199f
Nervous tissue, 72, 81
Net filtration pressure, 446, 446f
N eural tunic (retina), 236
Neurogenic shock, 335
Neuroglia, 81, 81f, 192, 196, 196f
N eurom uscular junction, impulse
transm ission and, 160, 160f
Neurons, 81, 81f, 192-195, 194f
N eurosecretory cells, 259
N eurotransm itters, 199
N eurulation, 491
Neutrons, 24
Neutrophils, 289f, 290
Nevus, 95
Nicotinam ide adenine dinucleotide, 418
Nipples, 479f
Nitrogenous bases, 41
Nociceptors, 102, 230
Non-endocrine glands, 274, 274f
Non-polar covalent bonds, 29
Non-polar molecules, 29
Nonsteroid hormones, 255-257, 256f
N orepinephrine, 272
Nose, 350f, 373
Notochord, 491
Nuclear envelope, 57
Nuclear pores, 57
Nuclei, 195
Nucleic acids, 40-42, 40f-41f
Nucleolus, 57
Nucleotides, 40, 41f
Nucleus, 24, 50, 56-57, 56f
N utrients
carbohydrate conversion and, 418
m etabolization and, 418-422
nutritional guidelines, 416, 417f
small intestine absorption of,
410-411, 411f
N utritional guidelines, 416, 417f
O
Obesity, 424-425
Oblique plane, 12, 12f
Obstructive pulm onary diseases, 379f, 391
O bturator foram ina, 132
Occipital bone, 123
Occipital condyles, 123
Occipitofrontalis muscle, 173t
O ctet rule, 26
Odorants, 232
Olfaction, 232
Olfactory epithelium , 232-233, 233f
Olfactory receptors, 232-233
Oligodendrocytes, 196
Oocytes, 476
Oogenesis, 476, 480-482, 481f
Oogonia, 480
O pen fractures, 120, 120f
Opioid analgesics, 231
Optic chiasm, 240
Optic foram en, 123
O ral contraceptives, 485
564 Index
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