Ionic bonds, 27, 27f
Ions, 27, 27f, 319
Iris, 236
Iron-binding proteins, 352, 352f
Iron-deficiency anem ia, 300
Irregular bones, 114
Islets of Langerhans, 266-267
Isom etric contractions, 164
Isotonic contractions, 164
Isotonic solutions, 61, 61f
Isotopes, 25, 25f
J
Jejunum , 408
Joint movements, 138-142, 138f-139f
Joints, 136, 137f
Juxtaglom erular cells, 457f
Juxtam edullary nephrons, 442
K
K eratin, 94, 100
K eratinization, 95
Keratinocytes, 100
Ketone bodies in urine, 449t
Ketones, 420
Kidney stones, 458
Kidneys
blood composition and pH and, 439
blood volume regulation and, 438
as complex filter, 440-443
electrolyte balance and, 454-455, 454f
functions of, 438-439
hormone production and, 439
internal structure of, 440f-441f
pH buffer systems and, 458-459, 459f
pH change com pensation and, 460,
460f-461f
renal failure and dialysis, 462
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
and, 456-458, 457f
stone form ation and, 458
waste excretion and, 439
w ater balance and, 455-456, 455f
w ater distribution and, 453, 453f
Kinases, 39
Kinetic energy, 22
Knee
anatom y of, 142, 142f
injuries of, 143, 143f
replacem ent of, 145, 145f
Krebs cycle, 419, 419f
Kyphosis, 127
L
Labia, 477f
Labia m ajora, 478
Labia m inora, 478
Labor, 498-500, 499f
Lacrim al bones, 126
Lacrim al fluid, 235
Lacrim al glands, 235
Lactation, 500, 501f
Lacteals, 411
Lactic acid, 162f, 163
Lactose, 35f
Lacunae, 117
Lambdoid suture, 126
Lam inae, 127
Large intestine, 401f, 412-414, 413f, 415t
Larynx, 373
Latent period, muscle twitch and, 163, 163f
L ateral rectus muscle, 174t
L ateral surface, 72
Laughing, 380t
Left common carotid artery, 322
Leg muscles, 184, 184f, 184t
Leptin, 275f, 424
Leukem ia, 300
Leukocytes, 289f, 290, 449t
Leukocytosis, 292
Leukotrienes, 275f
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, 174t
Levator scapulae, 176t
Leydig cells, 472, 472f
Life processes, 6, 7f
Ligam ents, 136
Light, vision and, 238-239, 238f-239f
Limbic system, breathing and, 388
Lipid bilayer, 52
Lipids, 36, 37f, 420-421, 421f
Lipogenesis, 420
Lipolysis, 420
Lipoproteins, 420
Liquids, 22
Liver, 401f, 410, 410f, 415t
Lobes, 202
Lobules, 472f, 478
Long bones, 114-116, 115f
Longitudinal arch, 133
Loose connective tissue, 78t
Lordosis, 127
Low-density lipoproteins, 421
Lower body, 132-133, 134f-135f
Lower respiratory tract, 373-374, 373f
Lum bar vertebrae, 127
Lumen, 321
Lungs
anatom y of, 373-374
capacity of, 378, 391
pH change com pensation and, 460,
460f-461f
smoking and, 391-392, 391f
ventilation and, 377-378
volumes and, 378, 379f
Lunula, 99
Lupus, 361
Luteinizing hormone (LH), 273, 475
Lymph, 57, 344, 347f
Lymph circulation, 347, 347f
Lymph nodes, 344, 347f, 348f
Lymphatic capillaries, 344, 347f, 348f
Lymphatic ducts, 347f, 348f
Lymphatic nodules, 344
Lymphatic system.
See also
Immune response
circulation of lymph, 347, 347f
functions of, 5f, 344
im m une reactions and, 348-349
prim ary organs and tissues, 346f
secondary organs and tissues, 346f
structures and organs, 344-347, 345f
Lymphatic vessels, 344, 347f, 348f
Lymphocytes, 289f, 290, 348
Lymphoid stem cells, 290f, 291
Lysosomes, 55, 55f
Lysozyme, 235, 409f
M
M agnetic resonance im aging (MRI), 15f
M ajor histocom patibility complex (M HC),
356
Male birth control pills, 487
M ale-pattern baldness, 97
Male reproductive system
aging and, 502-503, 502f-503f
horm onal control, 475, 475f
organs of, 470-472, 471f
path of sperm, 474, 474f
sperm production and, 472-475
Male sexual characteristics, 475
M alignant m elanom a, 106, 106f
M altose, 35f
M am m ary glands, 478, 479f
M andible, 123
M anubrium , 131
Mass number, 24
M asseter muscle, 173t
Mastoid process, 123
M atter
chemical elem ents and, 23, 23f
difference from energy, 22-23, 22f
M ature (graafian) follicle, 480
M axillae, 123
M axillary sinus, 123
M ean arterial pressure, 332
M echanical energy, 23
M edial rectus muscle, 174t
M edian antebrachial veins, 328
M edian cubital veins, 328
M ediastinum , 311
M edical imaging, 15f
M edulla, 269
M edulla oblongata, 206
Megakaryocytes, 290
Meiosis, 67-71, 70f, 71t, 473
M eissner corpuscles, 95, 102, 229
M elanin, 95-96
M elanocytes, 95
M elanoma, m alignant, 106, 106f
M elatonin, 274
Index 563
previous page 598 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online next page 600 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off