H
Hair, 96-98, 97f
H air cells, 243
H air color, 97
H air follicles, 96
H air m atrix, 96
H air root plexuses, 96, 229
Ham strings, 183t
Hands, 181, 181f, 181t
Haploid cells, 71
Haversian canal, 117
Head and neck muscles, 173-174, 173f,
173t, 174f
H ealing process, bones and, 121f
Hearing, 241-245, 243f.
See also
Ear
H eart
blood flow through, 314-315, 314f
cardiac cycle and, 316-317, 317f
cardiac output and, 318-319, 318f
electrical signals and, 315-316, 315f
endocrine cells and, 274f
heart block, 316
heart rate, 318-319
location of, 311, 311f
m ajor blood vessels of, 313f
m ajor parts of, 313f
microscopic structure of, 312f
norm al and obstructed arteries,
319, 319f
valves and, 312
H eat loss, 427-430, 427f
H eat production, 427-430, 427f
H em atocrit, 288
H em atocrit tests, 301t
H em atom a, fracture, 121f
Hem atopoiesis, 291
Hemidesmosom es, 72
Hemodialysis, 462
Hemoglobin, 95, 290, 290f, 382-384
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers
(HBOCs), 298
Hemolysis, 296
Hemolytic anem ia, 300
Hemolytic disease of newborn, 298
Hemopoiesis, 291
Hem orrhage, 294
H em orrhagic anem ia, 300
Hem ostasis, 294-295, 295f
H epatic portal circulations, 330-331,
330f-331f
H epatic portal vein, 330-331
Hiccuping, 380t, 388
High-density lipoproteins, 421
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
(HAART), 362
Hinge joints, 140, 140f
Hirsutism , 97
Histam ine, 353f, 360
Histology, 71
Hom eostasis
aging and disease and, 10
calcium, 119, 119f
defined, 8
H om eostatic balance, 8-10
Homogeneous liquid, 288
Homologous chromosomes, 70
Homunculi, 204
Horm ones
blood pressure and, 336
digestion control and, 412, 412t
endocrine system and, 8, 255
heart rate and, 319
horm onal contraception, 485
horm onal control in man, 475, 475f
hormone receptors, 255
kidneys and, 439
m etabolic activities and, 420-421
pregnancy and, 496
receptor-m ediated endocytosis and, 63
H um an chorionic gonadotropin (hCG),
275f, 490, 496
H um an chorionic som atom am m otropin
(hCS), 496
H um an immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
362-364, 363f
H um an placental lactogen (hPL), 496
Hum erus, 132
Hydrochloric acid, 407f
Hydrogen bonds, 29, 29f
Hydrogen ions, 32
Hydrolysis, 32
Hydrophilic substances, 31
Hydrophobic molecules, 31
Hydrostatic pressure, 324
Hydroxide ions, 32
Hymen, 476, 478f
Hyoid bone, 126f, 127
Hyperglycemia, 267
Hypertension, 337
Hyperthyroidism , 264
Hypertonic solutions, 61, 61f
Hypoglycemia, 267
Hypothalam ic hormones, 259-261, 259t
Hypothalam us, 263-264, 264f, 271, 271f,
272-273
Hypotherm ia, 430
Hypothyroidism, 264
Hypotonic solutions, 61, 61f
Hypovolemic shock, 335
I
Ibuprofen, 430
Ileum, 408
Im m une response
adaptive immunity, 350, 354-359,
354f-355f, 360, 360t
allergies and, 360
antibody-m ediated immunity, 354,
358-359, 358f
antigens and, 356, 356f
autoim m une diseases, 361
cell-m ediated immunity, 356, 357f
first line of, 350-352, 350f—351f
im munoglobulins and, 359, 359t
immunological memory, 359, 359f
innate immunity, 350, 351-353
second line of, 352-353, 352f-353f
Immunoglobulins, 359, 359t
Im m unological memory, 359, 359f
Im pacted fractures, 120, 120f
Im plantation, 488, 489f
Impulse transm ission, neurom uscular
junction and, 160, 160f
Incontinence, 452
Inferior m esenteric artery, 322
Inferior nasal conchae, 126
Inferior oblique muscle, 174t
Inferior phrenic arteries, 322
Inferior vena cava, 328
Inflam m ation, 353, 353f
Inflation reflex, breathing and, 388
Infraspinatus muscle, 179t
Infundibulum , 476, 477f
Ingestion, food, 404, 404f
Inhalation, 377-378, 377f
Inhibin, 273, 475, 477f
Innate immunity, 350, 351-353
Inner cell mass, 488
Inner ear, 242f
Inorganic compounds, 32
Inspiratory area, 386, 387f
Inspiratory reserve volume, 378
Insulin, 267, 267f
Integral proteins, 52
Integrative function, 193
Integum entary system
age-related changes and, 105-106, 105f
com ponents of, 92-93, 92f-93f
functions of, 4f
glands of the skin, 98, 98f
hair, 96-98, 97f
nails, 99, 99f
skin, 100-105
Intercalated discs, 167, 167f
Intercostal nerves, 217
Interferons, 352, 352f
Interm ediate filaments, 53, 165
Internal intercostal muscles, 377f
Internal intercostals, 175t
Internal jugular veins, 328
Internal oblique muscle, 177t
Internal respiration, 375, 382-385, 383f
Internal urethral sphincter, 450f
Interneurons, 195
Interosseous m em branes, 136, 137f
Interphase, 67, 68f
Interstitial fluid, 57
Intracellular fluid, 453
Intram em branous ossification, 117
Intrauterine devices, 485
562 Index
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