Dehydration, 34, 35f, 455
Dehydration synthesis, 32
Dehydrogenases, 39
Deltoid muscle, 179t
D enaturation, 39
D endrites, 195
Dense bodies, 165
Dense connective tissue, 78t
Deoxyribonuclease, 410
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 40-42,
40f-41f, 42t, 65
Depolarization, 160
Derm al papillae, 95
Dermatology, 92
D erm atom es, 217
Derm is, 93, 95
Desmosomes, 72
D etrusor muscle, 450, 450f
Diabetes, 267-268, 422-424, 423f
Diabetes insipidus, 261
Diabetes mellitus, 267
Dialysis, 462
Diaphragm , 175t, 377, 377f, 485
D iaphragm atic breathing, 380
D iarrhea, 414
D iarthrosis, 136
Diastole, 316
Diencephalon, 202
Dieting, 426
D ifferential white blood cell counts, 301t
Differentiation, 6, 7f
Diffusion, 58-59, 58f, 59f, 382
Digestive system
enteric nervous system and, 414-415
functions of, 5f, 400-401, 400f-401f
gastrointestinal tract layers, 402-403, 404f
innate im m unity and, 351f
large intestine, 412-414, 413f
m ajor horm ones and, 412, 412t
m outh, 404, 404f
organs and functions, 415t
peritoneum , 402-403, 402f
small intestine, 408-412, 408f-409f
stomach, 406-408, 406f-407f
swallowing and, 405, 405f
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 475
Dilation, labor and, 498
Dipeptides, 38
Diploid cells, 67
D irect visualization, 15f
D irectional term s, 11-12, 12f
Disaccharidase, 35, 35f
Distal convoluted tubule, 442
Disulfide bonds, 39
Dorsal venous arches, 328
Ductus arteriosus, 492
Ductus epididymis, 472f
Duodenum , 408
Dynamic equilibrium , 244-245, 244f-245f
Dyspnea, 380
E
Ear
cochlea, 243, 243f
equilibrium and, 244-245, 244f-245f
inner ear, 242f
regions of, 241-243, 241f
Eardrum (tympanic m em brane), 241
Earwax, 98
Eccrine, 98
Ectoderm , 490-491
Edema, 102, 324
Effectors, 8
Efferent arteriole, 440
Efferent lym phatic vessels, 347
Efferent (motor) nervous system, 193
Efferent neurons, 195
Ejaculation, 470
Electrical activity, heart, 315-316, 315f
Electrical energy, 23
Electrical synapses, 199
Electrically coupled transporters, 62
Electrocardiogram , 316
Electrolyte concentrations, 454-455, 454f
Electrom agnetic spectrum , 23
Electron levels, 25
Electron shells, 25
Electron transport chain, 419, 419f
Electrons, 24
Elem ents, atoms and, 24-26, 24f-25f
Embolus, 294
Embryonic development, 488-490, 489f, 494f
Embryonic germ layers, 490-492
Em igration, 353f
Encapsulated nerve endings, 229
Endocardium , 312
Endochondral ossification, 117, 118f
Endocrine glands, 73, 254
Endocrine pancreas, 266-267, 266f
Endocrine system
adrenal glands and, 269-272, 269f
aging and, 278-279, 278f-279f
com ponents of, 254-255, 254f
dim inished horm onal secretion and, 257
functions of, 4f
hypothalam ic horm ones and,
259-261, 259t
nonsteroid horm ones and, 255-257, 256f
pancreatic endocrine cells and,
266-267, 266f
pineal gland and, 274, 274f
pituitary gland and, 258-261, 261f
reproduction and, 272-273, 273f
steroid horm ones and, 255, 255f
stress response and, 275-277, 276f
thyroid gland and, 262-264, 262f
Endocytosis, 62-64, 64f
Endoderm , 490-491
Endom etrium , 476, 477f
Endoplasmic reticulum , 54-55, 54f
Energy, difference from m atter, 22-23, 22f
Energy balance, glucocorticoids and,
271-272
Enteric nervous system, 193, 403, 414-415
Enteroendocrine cells, 409f
Enzym e-substrate complex, 39
Enzymes, 36, 39, 39f
Eosinophils, 289f, 290
Ependym al cells, 196
Epicardium , 312
Epiderm al wound healing, 100, 100f-101f
Epiderm is, 93-95
Epididymis, 470
Epiglottis, 373
Epinephrine, 272
Epithelial m em brane, 82
Epithelial tissues, 72-75, 74f-75f
Equilibrium , 244-245, 244f-245f
Erector spinae, 178t
Erythrocytes, 288-289, 289f, 290f, 449t
Erythropoiesis, 292, 292f
Erythropoietin, 292
Esophageal arteries, 322
Esophagus, 415t
Essential nutrients, 416
Estrogen, 272, 477f, 496
Ethm oid bone, 123
Ethm oidal sinuses, 123
Eupnea, 380
Exchange reactions, 30f, 31
Exchangers, 62
Excitation-contraction coupling, 159, 161f
Exercise
blood pressure and, 336-337, 336f
epinephrine and norepinephrine and, 272
muscle health and, 169
respiratory actions and, 390, 390f
Exhalation, 377-378, 377f
Exhaustion stage of stress response, 277
Exocrine glands, 73
Exocytosis, 62-64, 64f
Exophthalmos, 264, 264f
Expiratory area, 386, 387f
Expiratory reserve volume, 378
Expulsion stage, labor and, 498
Extensor carpi radialis longus, 181t
Extensor carpi ulnaris, 181t
Extensor digitorum longus, 184t
E xternal auditory m eatus, 123
E xternal intercostals, 175t, 377f
E xternal jugular veins, 328
E xternal oblique muscles, 177t, 377f
E xternal respiration, 375, 382-385, 383f
E xternal urethral orifice, 450f, 451
E xternal urethral sphincter, 450f
E xtracellular fluid, 453
Extrinsic muscles, 174
Eye
accessory structures of, 235-236, 235f
image form ation and light detection,
238-239, 238f-239f
560 Index
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