Cardiac conduction system, 315-316, 315f
Cardiac cycle, 316-317, 317f
Cardiac muscle, 81, 155, 155f, 167, 167f
Cardiac output, 318-319, 318f, 333
Cardiogenic shock, 335
Cardiologists, 316
Cardiovascular system
blood, 286-300
blood pressure, 332-337
blood vessels, 321-331
divisions of, 310, 310f
functions of, 4f
heart, 310-319
Carotene, 96
Carotid foramen, 123
Carpals, 132
C arriers, 59
Cartilage, 78t, 79f
C artilaginous joints, 136, 137f
Catabolic reactions, 418, 418f
Catabolism , 31
Catalase, 55
Catalysts, 39
Cathodes, 27
Cations, 27, 32
Celiac trunk, 322
Cell bodies, 195
Cell junctions, 72
Cell-m ediated immunity, 354, 356, 357f
Cells
aging and, 84
anim al cell illustration, 50f-51f
cell cycle, 67
cell division, 50
cell junctions, 72
cell m em branes, 50, 82-83
cellular level, 2f
connective tissue and, 76-80
cytoplasm and, 53-56
division by mitosis or meiosis, 67-71
epithelial tissue and, 72-76
m em brane transportation and, 57-64
m uscular tissue and, 81
nervous tissue and, 81
nucleus and, 56-57
plasm a m em brane and, 52, 52f
proteins and, 64-67
tissue types and, 71-72
Cellular respiration
adenosine triphosphate and, 418-419, 419f
lipids and, 420-421, 421f
Cellulose, 36
C entral canal, 117
C entral chem oreceptors, 388, 389f
Central nervous system, 192-193, 192 f, 193f
brain, 202-205, 202f-203f
cerebrospinal fluid and, 200, 201f
protection and, 200, 200f
spinal cord and, 206-208, 206f
Centrioles, 53
Centrosom es, 53, 53f
Cephalic veins, 328
Cerebellum , 202
Cerebrospinal fluid, 57, 200, 201f
C erebrum , 202
Cerum en, 98
Cerum inous glands, 98, 98f
Cervical cancer, 503
Cervical vertebrae, 127
Cervix, 476, 477f
C esarean section (C-section), 498
Channels, 59
Chem ical changes, 22-23
Chem ical elem ents, 23, 23f
Chem ical levels, 2f, 420-421
Chem ical reaction types, 30f, 31
Chem ical synapses, 199
Chemicals, life uses and, 31-42
C hem istry
building blocks and, 26-31
elem ents and atoms, 22-26
Chem oreceptors, 334, 388, 389f
Chem otaxis, 352f
Chewing, 173-174, 173f, 173t
Chlamydia, 486
Cholecystokinin, 274f, 408, 409f, 412, 412t
Cholesterol, 36
Chondrocytes, 78
Chorionic villi, 490, 490f
Chrom atin, 57
Chromosomes, 57
Chylomicrons, 411
Chyme, 406
Chymotrypsin, 410
Cilia, 54
Ciliary body, 239
Clavicle, 132
Cleavage, 488, 489f
Clitoris, 478, 478f
Clonal activation, 356
Clonal selection, 354
Clotting, blood, 294-295, 295f
C lotting factors, 294
Coagulation, 294
Coccyx, 127
Cochlea, 243, 243f
Coenzymes, 39
Cofactors, 39
Collecting duct, 442
Colostrum , 500
Colum nar cells, 73
Com m inuted fractures, 120, 120f
Common iliac arteries, 322
Compact bone, 117
Com plem ent proteins, 352
Com plete blood counts, 301t
Compounds, atom s and, 26-31
Com puted tom ography (CT), 15f
Concentration, 57
C oncentration gradient, 57
Concentric lam ellae, 117
Conchae, 123
Condoms, 485
Condylar process, 123
Condyloid joints, 141, 141f
Cones, 236
Congenital hypothyroidism, 264
Connective tissues, 72, 76-79, 76f, 77f, 78t
Constipation, 414
C ontraception, 485-487, 486t
Contraction, blood pressure and, 332-333
Contraction (cross-bridge) cycle, 159, 159f
Contraction period, muscle twitch and,
163, 163f
Contractions, 163-164
Cooper’s ligam ent, 478, 479f
Coracoid process, 132
Cornea, 236
Coronal suture, 126
Coronary arteries, 312
Coronary sinus, 312, 328
Corpus callosum, 202
Corpus luteum , 480
Corpuscles of touch, 95
Cortical nephrons, 442
C orticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH),
259, 259t, 271, 496
Cortisol, 36, 271
Costal breathing, 380
Costal cartilage, 131
Coughing, 380t
C ountercurrent multiplier, 448
Covalent bonds, 28-29, 28f
Covering and lining epithelium , 72-73, 73t
Coxal bones, 132
C ranial bones, 123, 124f-125f
C ranial nerves, 214-215, 214f, 215f
C reatinine phosphate, 162f, 163
Cribriform plate, 123
Crista, 244
C rista galli, 123
Crossing over, 70
Crying, 380t
Cuboidal cells, 72
Cushing’s syndrome, 272, 272f
Cutaneous m em brane.
See
Skin
Cyclic AMP (cAMP), 256
Cytokinesis, 68f-69f
Cytolysis, 352f
Cytoplasm, 50
Cytoskeleton, 53, 53f
Cytotoxic T cells, 354
D
Dandruff, 95
Decomposition reactions, 30f, 31
Deep wound healing, 100, 100f-101f
Defecation, 414
Defecation reflex, 414
Deglutition, 405, 405f
Index 559
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