Autonomic nervous system
enteric nervous system and, 403
heart rate and, 319
involuntary functions and, 193
parasym pathetic division of, 212-213,
212f, 213t
somatic nervous system compared, 208,
208f, 210t
sym pathetic division of, 210, 211f
two-neuron pathway and, 208
Autonomic sensory receptors, 193
Autoregulation, 324
Autorhythm ic cells, 167
Axial skeleton, 122, 122f
Axillary hair, 97
Axillary veins, 328
Axon term inal, 199
Axons, 195
B
B cells, 352, 353f, 354
B lymphocytes, 354
Ball-and-socket joints, 141, 141f
Baroreceptor reflex, 334
Baroreceptors, 334
B arrier methods, contraception, 485
Basal cell carcinoma, 105
Basal cells, 232
Basal m etabolic rate (BMR), 427-430, 427f
Basal surface, 72
B asem ent m em brane, 72, 326f
Bases, 32, 32f
Basilar m em brane, 243
Basilic veins, 328
Basophils, 289f, 290
Behavior therapy, obesity and, 425
Belly, skeletal muscles and, 168
Biceps brachii, 180t
Biceps femoris, 183t
Biconcave shape, 288
Bile pigm ent, 410
Bile salts, 410
Bilirubin, 293f, 449t
Biliverdin, 293f
Biochemical functions, 3
Biofeedback, 231
Bipolar neurons, 195
Birth, 498
B irth control pills, 485, 487
Blackheads, 98
Blastocyst, 488, 489f
Blastocyst cavity, 488
Blastom eres, 488
Blood
artificial blood, 298
capillaries, 95
chemical composition testing and, 300
clotting and, 294-295
common medical blood tests, 300, 301f
compatibility, 296-298
com ponents of, 289f
disease diagnosis and, 300
flow through heart, 314-315, 314f
formed elem ents, 288-289
groups and types, 296-298, 297f
hemolytic disease and, 298
m ajor functions of, 288
obtaining for testing, 299
oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in,
383-384, 384f-385f
plasma, 288
Rh incom patibility and, 298
transfusions and, 296-299
Blood-brain barrier, 196
Blood cells
origin and development of, 291-293, 291f
recycling of, 292
red bone marrow stem cells and, 291-292
Blood colloidal osmotic pressure, 446f
Blood composition, kidneys and, 439
Blood pressure
blood flow and, 332, 333f
exercise and, 336-337, 336f
factors influencing, 332-334, 334f
horm ones and, 336
kidneys and, 438
regulation of, 334-337
Blood sm ears, 290f
Blood vessels
arteries and arterioles, 321-324
capillaries, 324-325
of heart, 313f
hepatic portal circulations, 330-331
types of, 320-321, 320f
veins and venules, 326-330
Blood volume
blood pressure and, 333
increased, 457f
kidneys and, 438
Body cavities, 12-14, 13f
Body fluids, 31-34
electrolyte balance and, 454-455, 454f
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
and, 456-458, 457f
w ater balance, 455-456, 455f
w ater distribution, 453, 453f
Body hair, 97
Body mass index (BMI), 424, 425f
Body systems
structural organization and, 2f-3f
vital functions and, 3-6, 4f-5f
Body tem perature, 319, 427-430, 427f
Bolus, 404
Bone
bone mass, 144, 144f
bone tissue, 78t
cranial bones, 123, 124f-125f
facial bones, 123-126
fractures and, 120-121, 120f, 121f
healing process and, 121f
microscopic structure of, 116-117, 116f
ossification and, 117, 118f
rem odeling and, 119, 121f
structure and types of, 114-117
Bony callus formation, 121f
Brachial veins, 328
Brachialis, 180t
Brachiocephalic trunk, 322
Brachiocephalic veins, 328
Brachioradialis, 180t
Brain
ascending and descending pathways
through, 207, 207f
blood pressure and, 334
breathing regulation and, 386-389, 387f
composition of, 202-205, 202f-203f
cranial nerves and, 214-215
maps of body within, 204-205, 205f
B rainstem , 202, 386-387, 387f
Breastfeeding, 500, 501f
B reathing
control centers, 388, 388f
muscles and, 175, 175f, 175t, 377-378
patterns of, 380, 380t
process of, 374-380, 376f-377f
regulation of, 386-387, 387f
Breech position, 498
Bronchi, 373
Bronchial artery, 322
Bronchioles, 373, 375f
Buccinator muscle, 173t
Buffers, 33
B ulbourethral gland, 470
Bulbs, 96
Burns, skin, 102-103, 103f
Bursae, 136
C
Calcaneus, 133
Calcification, 227
Calcitonin, 262, 265f
Calcitriol, 119, 264
Calcium hom eostasis, 102, 119, 119f
Calculi, urinary, 458
Calories, 416
Calyces, 440
Canaliculi, 117
Cancer, skin, 105-106, 106f
Capacitation, 485
Capillaries, 320f, 324-325, 325f
Capillary m em branes, 382
C apsular hydrostatic pressure, 446f
Carbohydrates, 34-36, 35f, 418
Carbon dioxide conversion, 384
Carbon dioxide transportation, 384,
384f-385f
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system,
33, 458-460, 459f, 460f
Carbonic anhydrase, 384, 447
Carboxypeptidase, 410
558 Index
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