Appendix A
Periodic Table
The periodic table lists the known
chem ical elem ents,
the basic
units of matter. The elements in the table are arranged left-to-
right in rows in order of their
atomic number,
the num ber of
protons in the nucleus. Each horizontal row, numbered from 1
to 7, is a
period.
All elem ents in a given period have the same
num ber of electron shells as their period number. For example,
an atom of hydrogen or helium each has one electron shell, while
an atom of potassium or calcium each has four electron shells.
The elements in each column, or
group,
share chemical proper-
ties. For example, the elements in column IA are very chemically
reactive, whereas the elem ents in column VIIIA have full elec-
tron shells and thus are chemically inert.
Scientists now recognize 117 different elem ents; 92 occur
naturally on Earth, and the rest are produced from the natural
elem ents using particle accelerators or nuclear reactors. Ele-
ments are designated by
chem ical symbols,
which are the first
one or two letters of the elem ent’s name in English, Latin, or
another language.
Twenty-six of the 92 naturally occurring elem ents nor-
mally are present in your body. O f these, ju st four elem ents—
oxygen (O), carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (N)
(coded blue)— constitute about 96% of the body’s mass. Eight
others— calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur
(S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe)
(coded pink)— contribute 3.8% of the body’s mass. An additional
14 elements, called
trace elem ents
because they are present
in tiny amounts, account for the rem aining 0.2% of the body’s
mass. The trace elem ents are aluminum, boron, chromium, co-
balt, copper, fluorine, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, seleni-
um, silicon, tin, vanadium, and zinc (coded yellow). Table 2.1 on
page 29 provides information about the main chemical elements
in the body.
IA
VIIIA
23
<—
-----Atom
ic umber
96% (4 elements)
□ 3.8% (8 elements)
□ 0.2% (14 elements)
VIIIB
2
Hydrogen
H
1.0079
IIA
IIB
\ /
+
l symbo
l
nass (we
ight)
VIIB
IB
IIIA
IVA
VA
VIA
VIIA
He
lium
He
4.003
V
'
3
L
ith
ium
Li
6.941
4
Berylium
Be
9.012
IVB
VB
VIB
IIB
5
Boron
B
10.811
6
Carbon
C
12.011
7
N
itrogen
N
14.007
8
Oxygen
O
15.999
9
F
luorine
F
18.998
10
Neon
Ne
20.180
11
Sod
ium
Na
22.989
12
Magnesium
Mg
24.305
13
A
lum
inum
Ai
26.9815
14
S
ilicon
Si
28.086
15
Phosphorus
P
30.974
16
Sulfur
S
32.066
17
Ch
lorine
Ci
35.453
18
Argon
Ar
39.948
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Potassium Ca
lcium Scand
ium T
itanium Vanad
ium Chrom
ium Manganese Iron Coba
lt N
icke
l Copper Z
inc Ga
lium German
ium Arsen
ic Se
len
ium Brom
ine Krypton
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
39.098
40.08
44.956
47.87
50.942
51.996
54.938
55.845
58.933
58.69
63.546
65.38
69.723
72.59
74.992
78.96
79.904
83.80
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rub
id
ium Strontium Yttrium Z
ircon
ium N
iob
ium Mo
lybdenum Technetium Ruthen
ium Rhod
ium Pa
lad
ium S
ilver Cadm
ium Ind
ium T
in Antimony Telurium Iod
ine Xenon
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
85.468
87.62
88.905
91.22
92.906
95.94
(99)
101.07
102.905
106.42
107.868
112.40
114.82
118.69
121.75
127.60
126.904
131.30
55 56 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cesium Barium Hafn
ium Tanta
lum Tungsten Rhen
ium Osm
ium Irid
ium P
latinum Go
ld Mercury Tha
lium Lead B
ismuth Po
lon
ium Astatine Radon
Cs
Ba
Hf
Ta
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
T
Pb
Bi
Po
At
Rn
132.905
137.33
178.49
180.948
183.85
186.2
190.2
192.22
195.08
196.967 200.59
204.38
207.19
208.980
(209)
(210)
(222)
87 88 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 118
Francium Rad
ium Rutherford
ium Dubn
ium Seaborg
ium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium
Fr
Ra
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
Uub
Uut
Uuq
Uup
Uuh
Uuo
(223)
(226)
(267)
(268)
(271)
(272)
(270)
(276)
(281)
(280)
(285)
(284)
(289)
(288)
(293)
(294)
2
3
4
5
6
7
t
57-71, Lanthanides
57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Lanthanum Cerium Praseodym
iumNeodym
ium Prometh
ium Samarium Europ
ium Gado
lin
ium Terb
ium Dysprosium Ho
lm
ium Erb
ium Thu
lium Ytterb
ium Lutetium
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu
138.91
140.12
140.907
144.24
144.913
150.35
151.96
157.25
158.925
162.50
164.930
167.26
168.934
173.04
174.97
89-103, Actinides
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Actinium Thorium Protactin
ium Uran
ium Neptun
ium P
luton
ium Americium Curium Berke
lium Californ
ium E
inste
in
ium Ferm
ium Mende
levium Nobe
lium Lawrencium
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr
(227)
232.038
(231)
238.03
(237)
244.064
(243)
(247)
(247)
242.058
(254)
257.095
258.10
259.10
260.105
Appendix A
Periodic Table 511
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