Key Terms
acrosome 473
• follicular phase 482
• mature (graafian)
• relaxin 496
birth 498
• foramen ovale 492
follicle 480
• scrotum 470
blastocyst 488
• fundus 476
• meiosis 473
• secondary oocyte 481
blastocyst cavity 488
• gamete 470
• menarche 502
• semen 470
blastomere 488
• gastrulation 490
• menopause 503
• seminal vesicle 470
body 476
• gonad 470
• menstrual cycle 482
• seminiferous tubules
breech 498
• germ layer 490
• menstruation 482
472
bulbourethral gland 470
• germinal epithelium 480
• mesoderm 491
• Sertoli cells 472
capacitation 485
• gonadotropin-inhibiting
• mons pubis 478
• sexual intercourse 470
cervix 476
hormone (GnIH) 487
• morula 488
• sexual reproduction 470
cleavage 488
• human chorionic gonadotro-
• myometrium 476
• sexually transmitted
clitoris 478
pin (hCG) 490
• neurulation 491
disease (STD) 485
colostrum 500
• human chorionic somato-
• notochord 491
• sperm 470
contraception 485
mammotropin (hCS) 496
• oocyte 480
• spermatogenesis 473
corpus luteum 480
• hymen 476
• oogenesis 480
• spermatogonia 472
corticotrophin-releasing hor-
• implantation 488
• oogonia 480
• spermiogenesis 473
mone (CRH) 496
• infertility 468
• ovarian cycle 481
• suspensory ligament of
dihydrotestosterone (DHT) 475
• infundibulum 476
• ovarian follicle 480
the breast 478
ductus arteriosus 492
• inhibin 475
• ovary 476
• testis 470
ectoderm 491
• inner cell mass 488
• ovulation 480
• testosterone 470
ejaculation 470
• in v it r o
fertilization (IVF) 468
• ovum 481
• trophoblast 488
endoderm 491
• labia majora 478
• parturition 498
• umbilical cord 491
endometrium 476
• labia minora 478
• placenta 491
• uterine cavity 476
epididymis 470
• labor 498
• polar body 481
• uterine tube 476
estrogen 496
• lactation 500
• primary oocytes 480
• uterus 476
female reproductive cycle 482
• Leydig cells 472
• progesterone 496
• vagina 476
fertilization 470
• lobule 478
• prolactin (PRL) 500
• vas deferens 470
fimbriae 476
• luteal phase 482
• prostaglandins 498
• vestibule 478
follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) 475
• luteinizing hormone (LH) 475
• mammary gland 478
• prostate 470
• puberty 502
• zygote 488
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Elaine was in a car accident in which she experienced head
trauma. Before her accident, Elaine had regular menstrual
cycles, but after the accident, her cycles were irregular and
then stopped completely. What might have happened during
the accident? What physiological mechanism explains these
results?
2. To treat some child molesters, high doses of testosterone can
be administered as a form of chemical castration. How does
this affect male reproductive function and sex drive?
3. Alcohol causes vasodilation; excessive alcohol intake can
render a man incapable of having sexual intercourse. What
physiological mechanisms are important for the male por-
tion of sexual intercourse, and how could they be affected by
excessive alcohol levels?
4. Julia is breast-feeding her newborn baby. Between feedings,
she wears her favorite T-shirt, which has become a little tight
across her breasts, and notices that the T-shirt becomes wet.
Explain why this would happen.
5. Spina bifida is a birth defect in which the baby is born with an
open spine, accompanied by brain and spinal cord defects.
Explain the process by which the central nervous system
develops and how a problem in this process can lead to spina
bifida.
6. Obstetricians are careful when administering pain medica-
tions to women in labor because they might act as anesthetics
and slow the progression of labor. Pain killers and anesthetics
interfere with nerve transmissions. What is the physiological
mechanism involved in labor, and how might it be affected by
an anesthetic?
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions 507
previous page 542 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online next page 544 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off