Key Terms
anatomical position 10
• feedback system 8
• oblique plane 12
• reproduction 6
anatomy 2
• frontal plane 12
• organ 3
• responsiveness 6
anterior 10
• growth 6
• organism 3
• sagittal plane 12
atom 3
• homeostasis 8
• parasagittal plane 12
• sections 12
biochemical 3
• hormone 8
• pericardium 13
• serous membrane 13
body cavities 12
• inferior 11
• peritoneum 13
• steady state 9
cell 3
• lateral 11
• physiology 2
• superficial 11
control center 8
• medial 11
• planes 12
• superior 11
controlled condition 8
• metabolism 6
• pleura 13
• supine 10
deep 11
• midline 11
• positive feedback system 8
• system 3
differentiation 6
• midsagittal plane 12
• posterior 10
• tissue 3
distal 11
• molecule 3
• prone 10
• transverse plane 12
dorsal 10
• movement 6
• proximal 11
• ventral 10
effector 8
• negative feedback system 8
• receptor 8
• viscera 13
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus sense the level of the adrenal
hormone cortisol in the blood. When cortisol levels are low,
the hypothalamus secretes a hormone, called corticotropin-
releasing factor (CRF), which stimulates the anterior pituitary
gland to secrete adrenocortical hormone (ACTH). ACTH acts
on the adrenal cortex, which secretes cortisol. The increase
in blood cortisol shuts down CRF and ACTH secretions by the
hypothalamus and pituitary gland. What type of feedback
system is this? What is the controlled condition? Identify the
receptors, control center, and effectors in this system.
2. A severely burned patient has tissue damage deep into his
arm down to the bone and is bleeding. His blood pressure is
falling, and he passes out. What body systems do his burn and
its consequences affect?
3. A patient with a knife wound appears in the emergency room.
The knife entered the victim just below the diaphragm at the
midline and was thrust upward into the chest, past the lower
tip of the heart and into the right lung. What is the correct ana-
tomical description of the wound's entry and direction? Which
body cavities are affected?
4. You dissect an object that has an inner lining of epithelium,
enclosed by a layer of smooth muscle and an outer tough
connective tissue covering. Based on the hierarchy of body
organization, what have you dissected? Explain.
5. A patient complains of shooting pain from his left groin to his
stomach. How would you describe the location of the pain for
a medical report?
What is happening in this picture?
This X-ray im age with false colors
show s tum ors (pink/blue) inside the liver (red).
1. W hat is the anatom ical orientation of this picture?
2. In w hat direction are you looking?
W hat type of section is this? In w hat cavity are you
looking?
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