Some of the STDs caused by bacteria include chlamydia,
gonorrhea, and syphilis. Chlamydia usually does not have any
symptoms and may cause urethritis in males and can lead
to pelvic inflammatory disease in females. The symptoms of
gonorrhea include urethritis with excess pus discharge; the
disease may be asymptomatic in females, leading to steril-
ity. Syphilis begins with a primary stage which results in a
painless open sore. Symptoms of the secondary stage include
rash, fever, and joint pain. In the tertiary stage, the organs
begin to deteriorate. All three STDs are treatable with anti-
biotics, except for the third stage of syphilis.
STDs caused by viruses include genital herpes and
genital warts. The symptoms of genital herpes include
painful blisters on the external genitals of males and fe-
males, with possible internal blistering in females. The
symptoms of genital warts include cauliflower growths
on the external genital area and internal growths in
females; they can also appear on or around the anus.
Both genital herpes and genital warts are incurable.
Outbreaks of genital herpes can be controlled with anti-
inflammatory drugs, and genital warts can be removed
cryogenically.
Table 16.1 summarizes some of the common contra-
ceptive methods as well as their effectiveness. Research
is ongoing for more effective contraceptives; see
W h a t a
H e a lth P rovider Sees
for one example.
Methods of contraception and their effectiveness rates Table 16.1
Fertilization Stage
Male
Female
Effectiveness
Abstinence
Gamete transport
Sterilization:
through tubes
Vasectomy
Abstinence
100
%
Sterilization:
Tubal ligation
99%
Ovulation
N/
Deposition
of sperm
Barrier Methods:
Condom
Hormonal methods.
Oral contraceptives
Patches
Vaginal rings
Injections
Barrier Methods.
Diaphragm
Vaginal pouch
Cervical cap
97%
80-85
N/
Implantation
Sperm icides
99%
%
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