A n a t o m y o f t h e b r e a s t s a n d m a m m a r y g l a n d s
F i g u r e 1 6 . 8
Mammary duct'
The suspensory (Cooper’s)
ligament supports the breast.
Pectoralis major
muscle
Lobule
M
ilk ducts
connect
mammary
glands to
the nipple.
Nipple
Areola
Adipose tissue
in superficial
fascia
The
areola
is pigmented
area with modified oil glands.
The nipple is where
milk discharges.
M am m ary
glands consist of
smaller, milk-secreting glands
called alveoli that are modified
sweat glands and are arranged
in lobules.
Intercostal
muscles
Which of the following parts
of the breast contains pig-
ments and oil glands?
\
a. nipple
b. areola
c. mammary glands
d. adipose tissue
___________________
y
of puberty, under the influence of estrogens and proges-
terone, the female breasts begin to develop. The duct sys-
tem matures and fat is deposited, which increases breast
size. The areola and nipple also enlarge and become more
darkly pigmented.
In sum, the functions of the female reproductive sys-
tem are as follows. •
The ovaries produce secondary oocytes and hormones,
including estrogens, progesterone, inhibin, and relaxin.
The uterine tubes transport a secondary oocyte to the
uterus, and these tubes are normally the site where
fertilization occurs.
The uterus is the site of implantation of a fertilized ovum,
development of the fetus during pregnancy, and labor.
The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse
and is a passageway for childbirth.
The mammary glands synthesize, secrete, and eject
milk for nourishment of the newborn.
Now that we have examined the female reproductive
system, we can understand the common causes of female
infertility discussed in the chapter opener: a lack of egg
release, abnormal pathways for the sperm and egg, abnor-
mal hormone levels, and infections (especially sexually
transmitted diseases).
CONCEPT CHECK
1.
What
are the male's accessory sex organs, and
what do they do?
2.
How
do Sertoli cells in the testes nurture and
protect the developing sperm cells?
3.
What
does the hormone testosterone do?
4.
What
role does the uterus play in reproduction?
The Reproductive Organs Make, Deliver, and Receive the Sex Cells
479
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