Key Terms
• acidosis 460
• afferent arteriole 441
• albuminuria 447
• aldosterone 448
• alkalosis 460
• antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
448
• carbonic anhydrase 447
• calculus 458
• collecting duct 442
• cortical nephron 442
• countercurrent multiplier 448
• dehydration 455
• detrusor muscle 450
• dialysis 462
• distal convoluted tubule 442
• efferent arteriole 441
• electrolyte 454
• extracellular fluid (ECF) 453
• filtration membrane 446
• glomerular filtration rate
(GFR) 447
• glomerulus 441
• hemodialysis 462
• incontinence 452
• intracellular fluid (ICF) 453
• juxtamedullary nephron 442
• kidney 438
• major calyx 440
• micturition 452
• micturition reflex 452
• minor calyx 440
• nephron 442
• nephron loop 442
• net filtration pressure (NFP) 446
• paracellular route 447
• parathyroid hormone (PTH) 448
• peritoneal dialysis 462
• proximal convoluted tubule 442
renal corpuscle 442
renal pelvis 440
renal tubule 442
renal vein 441
renin-angiotensin-
aldosterone system 456
transcellular route 447
ureter 438
urethra 438
urinary bladder 438
urinary system 438
urine 438
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Jimmy is an active 10-year-old boy. He notices that his first-
morning urine is a dark yellow color, much darker than urine later
in the day. He is worried that something may be wrong and tells
his mother. Should Jimmy be worried? Explain why or why not.
2. A man is trapped in a raft at sea for days, with no fresh water.
Why can't he drink seawater to quench his thirst? Explain what
drinking seawater would do to the man's kidney functions.
3. A diabetic develops acidosis, and his blood pH drops. What
compensatory mechanisms are going on in his body to try to
restore normal blood pH?
4. Bob notices dark red blood in his urine. What part of the
nephron might be affected? Explain how the kidney normally
prevents blood from entering the urine.
5. Selena has high blood pressure and takes a medication that
inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme. Her doctor recom-
mends that she watch her diet to keep her intake of sodium
chloride low while she's on the medication. If Selena has a
high salt intake, what will happen? Explain the mechanism that
would be affected if she indulges in French fries.
What is happening in this picture?
Kidney transplants are necessary to treat kidney disease and
renal failure. The most common cause of kidney disease is ne-
phritis.
1.
W hat treatm ent would this
patient undergo while awaiting a transplant?
2.
Explain the pathway of blood from the aorta
through the kidney and back to the inferior
vena cava.
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