The anatomical position • Figure 1.5
This figure shows the anatomical positions, with directions and names of the major
body regions (anatomical terms in parentheses).
Lateral
Medial
Neck
(Cervical)
Head
(CePhalic)
Face —
Proximal
Distal
L e g ------
(crural)
Foot —
(pedal)
Ankle
(tarsal)
Toes (digital
or phalangeal)
Thigh ■
(femoral)
Midline
a.
Anterior view
Lateral
Superior
L
!
t
1
Chest
thoracic).
A\bdomen ,
Trunk
1
1
1
ft
1
1
1
3elvis
!
T
■ Arm
(brachial)
Inferior
— Forearm
(antebrachial)
Wrist (carpal)
Palm (palmar)
Shoulder
(acromial)
Shoulder blade
(scapular)
Spinal column
(vertebral)
— Head
(Cephalic)
1— Neck
J
(Cervical)
Back
(dorsal)
Л
Buttock
-------
(gluteal)
Susan has a rash that spreads
from her upper arm to her
forearm. Anatomically, in what
direction is the rash spreading?
Upper ■
Limb
Lower
Limb
Heel
Midline
(calcaneal)
b. Posterior view
Now that you have learned about positions and regions,
let’s look at how a clinician would use directions to de-
scribe the location of that cut on your arm.
Directional Terms Describe the Location
of Body Parts Relative to Each Other
Your body is a three-dimensional object, so anatomical lo-
cations must be specific in all three dimensions. In addi-
tion, a reference line called the
m id lin e
is used to divide
the body vertically into halves. With this in mind, let’s look
at the various directions (see Figure 1.5):
1.
Trunk:
Medial
—Toward the midline
Lateral
—Away from the midline.
Superior
—Toward the head
Inferior
—Away from the head
2.
Limbs:
Proximal
—Toward the point of attachment
Distal
—Away from the point of attachment
3.
Trunk and limbs:
Superficial
—Toward the surface of the body
Deep
—Away from the surface
For example, you might describe that cut below your right
elbow more precisely as a superficial cut on the anterior side
of the right antebrachial region, 2 cm distal to the elbow.
Anatomical Road Maps Guide Navigation Through the Body
11
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