Key Terms
• accessory digestive organ 401
• acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) 419
• aerobic respiration 419
• anabolic reaction 418
• antioxidant vitamin 416
• basal metabolic rate (BMR) 427
• bile pigment 410
• bile salt 410
• body mass index (BMI) 424
• bolus 404
• Calorie 416
• carboxypeptidase 410
• catabolic reaction 418
• cellular respiration 418
• cholecystokinin (CCK) 408
• chylomicron 411
• chyme 406
• chymotrypsin 410
• constipation 414
• defecation 414
• defecation reflex 414
• deglutition 405
• deoxyribonuclease 410
• diabetes mellitus 422
• diarrhea 414
• digestive system 400
• duodenum 408
• electron transport chain (ETC) 419
• enteric nervous system (ENS) 403
• essential nutrient 416
fat-soluble vitamin 416
feces 414
flatus 414
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 418
gallbladder 410
gastric emptying 406
gastric juice 406
gastric lipase 406
gastric pit 406
gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD) 405
gastrointestinal (GI) tract 400
ghrelin 424
gluconeogenesis 420
glucose-6-phosphate 421
glycemic index 426
glycemic load 426
glycogenolysis 420
glycolysis 419
high-density lipoprotein 421
hypothermia 430
ileum 408
ingestion 404
jejunum 408
ketone 420
Krebs cycle 419
lacteal 411
leptin 424
lipogenesis 420
lipolysis 420
lipoprotein 420
low-density lipoprotein 421
metabolism 418
micelle 410
mineral 416
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) 418
nutrient 416
obesity 424
oxidation 418
oxidative phosphorylation 419
pancreatic acinar cell 410
pancreatic amylase 410
pancreatic juice 410
pancreatic lipase 410
pepsin 406
peristalsis 405
peritonium 402
prostaglandin 430
pro-vitamin 416
pyrogen 430
pyruvic acid 422
ribonuclease 410
segmentation 408
thermic effect of food 424
trypsin 410
type 1
diabetes 422
type 2 diabetes 422
villi 408
very-low density lipoprotein 421
vitamin 416
water-soluble vitamin 416
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Jane loves chocolate but wants to lose weight. So she eats
large amounts of sugar-free chocolate, which contains an
artificial sweetener that cannot be absorbed by the small
intestine. She complains that she has diarrhea, gas, and intes-
tinal cramps after eating the sugar-free chocolate. How would
eating the chocolate lead to these symptoms?
2. A popular drug for treating heartburn inhibits gastrin recep-
tors in the stomach. How does this action treat heartburn?
3. Because Roberto has a pancreatic tumor that secretes high
levels of insulin, he often has episodes of extremely low blood
sugar, or hypoglycemia. During these episodes, he feels faint
and has even collapsed into a coma on occasion. How does
the tumor cause these symptoms?
4. To treat his high blood pressure, Mike takes a vasodilator daily.
He finds that he is not able to tolerate cold temperatures as
well as he did before he was on the medication. Explain how
taking a vasodilator would reduce Mike's cold tolerance.
5. Jerry is extremely obese and agrees to have gastric banding
surgery, in which about half of his stomach will be banded so
that it receives no food. What will be the consequences with
respect to the gastric phase of digestion?
6. Susan is being treated for an infection with a broad-spectrum
antibiotic. She complains that the medicine is giving her diar-
rhea. Her doctor suggests that she eat yogurt (containing live
organism cultures) during the course of the antibiotic treat-
ment. How does the antibiotic cause Susan's diarrhea, and
how might the yogurt help?
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions 433
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