WHAT A HEALTH
PRoviDER SEES
y THE PLANNER!
D ieting and W eig h t Loss
T
here are so many diets available. Patients often
ask their health providers which one is best. Diet
strategies include three main approaches:
Reduce total caloric intake but keep the distribu-
tion between food types the same (carbohydrates
vs. fats vs. proteins).
Alter the distribution of the diet to restrict or elimi-
nate certain food types. Some diet plans severely
restrict fats in favor of carbohydrates. Other plans
eliminate carbohydrates in favor of high-fat, high-
protein foods.
Reduce calories while encouraging consump-
tion of foods that have a low glycemic index or
glycemic load. Glycemic index and glycemic load
are measures of the degree to which eating a par-
ticular food increases blood glucose. Foods with
low glycemic index or glycemic load cause blood
glucose to rise only slightly, and the changes occur
slowly. For example, a baked sweet potato has a
lower glycemic index than a baked white potato
(63 vs. 158).
A diet plan should be effective and relatively easy to
follow, and should always be accompanied by exer-
cise. Patients should understand that dieting is not just
a temporary solution but a lifestyle change. Otherwise,
many patients will gain the weight back within about
two years.
1.
The A tkins diet encourages
intake of high am ounts of fat and protein and low
am ounts o f carbohydrates. In term s of m etabolic re-
actions, how w ould the A tkins diet cause w eigh t loss?
2.
A ga in considering m etabolism , how m ight eating
food s with a low glycem ic index or low glyce m ic load
cause w eigh t loss?
CONCEPT CHECK
1.
How
do the insulin signaling disruptions differ
in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes?
2.
How
can chronically elevated blood glucose
cause poor peripheral circulation in a diabetic?
3.
What
is body mass index?
4.
How
would inhibition of lipase help to treat
obesity?
426 CHAPTER 14
The Digestive System, Nutrition, and Metabolism
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