T h e m e t a b o l i c e v e n t s in d i a b e t e s •
F ig u r e 1 4 . 1 5
The primary causes of diabetes are lack of insulin (Type I
diabetes) and
insulin resistance (Type II diabetes).
Insulin ineffectiveness causes
a prolonged fasting state.
Blood effects
Organ effects and symptoms
Elevated glucagon anc
cortisol levels cause the
breakdown of liver
glycogen.
Liver
w
With normal or in-
creased food ingestion,
nutrients are absorbed
through the intestine but
not taken up by cells.
>Blood levels become _
elevated for:
• Glucose
• Glycerol and fatty acids
• Amino acids
• Ketones
^Change in blood levej,s_
of various substances
(see above) decreases
blood pH, causing
acidosis
Kidney:
' Glucose in urine (glucosuria)
' Increased urine flow (polyuria)
Muscles:
• Loss of muscle
mass (both Type I
and II diabetes)
• Loss of body fat
(type I diabetes
only)
. Central nervous system:
• Depressed respiratory centers
• Coma
Peripheral circulation:
• Osmotic pressure leads to capillary
absorption
Tissue dehydration:
Increased thirst (polydipsia)
• Hand and feet problems
• Cold feeling
• Numbness
• Sores
• Gangrene
•Vision problems
(retinopathy and
blindness)
• Weight loss (type I
diabetes)
Respiration:
• Decreased rate of breathing
(from CNS input)
• Acetone breath (from el-
evated
ketone
levels;
see
above)
Until their condition becomes regulated,
Type 2 diabetic patients:
a. take in less water than normal.
b. have elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
c. are not producing the proper amount of
insulin.
d. produce decreased amounts of urine.
e. tend to be underweight.
Diabetes and Obesity Are Metabolic Disorders 423
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