Key Terms
• alveolar macrophage 391
• alveolus 374
• anatomic dead space 378
• apnea 380
• apneustic area 386
• breathing 375
• bronchiole 373
• bronchus 373
• carbonic anhydrase 384
• central chemoreceptor 388
• chemoreceptor 388
• costal breathing 380
• diaphragm 377
• diaphragmatic breathing 380
• dyspnea 380
• epiglottis 373
eupnea 380
exhalation 377
expiratory area 386
expiratory reserve volume
378
external respiration 375
glottis 373
hiccup 388
inhalation 377
inspiratory area 386
inspiratory reserve volume
378
internal respiration 375
interstitial space 375
larynx 373
lower respiratory tract 373
• lung 373
• lung capacity 378
• nasal epithelium 373
• nose 373
• nostril 381
• obstructive pulmonary dis-
ease 379
• partial pressure 382
• peripheral chemoreceptor 388
• pharynx 373
• pleural cavity 374
• pleural membrane 374
• pneumotaxic area 386
• pneumothorax 378
• pulmonary edema 391
• residual volume 378
• respiration 375
• respiratory distress syndrome
(RDS) 381
• restrictive pulmonary disease 379
• sleep apnea 380
• solubility 382
• spirogram 378
• spirometer 378
• surfactant 374
• tidal volume 378
• total lung capacity 378
• trachea 373
• type II alveolar cell 381
• upper respiratory tract 373
• vital capacity 378
• vocal cord 373
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Poorly ventilated furnaces often emit dangerous levels of
carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide binds with greater affinity
to hemoglobin than does oxygen. What would be the conse-
quences to gas exchange of carbon monoxide inhalation?
2. According to Jim's wife, periodically when he is sleeping Jim
stops breathing for long periods of time, takes a long, noisy
breath, and then begins breathing normally again. From what
disorder does Jim suffer, and what stimulates him to breathe?
3. A quarterback must play in Denver, where the oxygen concen-
tration in the atmosphere is approximately 59% than at sea
level, where he lives. How will this affect his rate of breathing?
What physiological mechanisms account for your answer?
4. Through prolonged exposure to coal dust, a miner's lungs
become
f ib r o t ic
(that is, the elastic smooth muscle in the lungs
and airways is replaced with rigid scar tissue). He often com-
plains of fatigue and lack of energy. What effects would you
expect this fibrotic tissue to have on his breathing, and what
diagnostic tests would you use to confirm your diagnosis?
What is happening in this picture?
Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing,
coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and anxiety.
Rescue inhalers contain albuterol, which relaxes
airway smooth muscles.
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