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W
I L E Y
Special Terms Are Used
PLUS
video
to Describe Breathing Patterns
Several different breathing patterns can occur. Some of
these patterns are normal, and some are not. Some are
used to expel debris, and some occur in response to emo-
tions. The following are some common terms used to de-
scribe certain breathing patterns:
Eupnea
(UP-ne-a). Normal, quiet breathing, which
consists of shallow, deep, or combined shallow and
deep breathing
Costal breathing
(chest breathing). Shallow breathing
involving upward and downward movements of the chest
due to contractions of the external intercostals
Diaphragmatic breathing
(abdominal breathing).
Deep breathing involving outward movements of the
abdomen due to contractions of the diaphragm.
Apnea
. Absence of breathing that can occur
in premature infants who have incomplete
brain development, in heavy snorers (
sleep
apnea
), as a result of severe hypothermia
I (large drop in body temperature), and in some individuals
who have suffered head trauma. With sleep apnea, some
people periodically stop breathing and start only when
the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO
; see next
section) builds up and stimulates breathing again.
Dyspnea
. Difficult breathing that can be due to airway
obstructions
(from
foreign
bodies,
asthma
attack,
and so on), lungs that are less flexible because they
contain excess fluid (as occurs in pulmonary edema or
pneumonia), and thoracic injuries (such as rib fractures).
Table 13.1 shows some additional breathing patterns. Cough-
ing and sneezing are protective reflexes that help maintain a
clear airway. The other breathing patterns shown in the table
are often used to express emotions. All of these movements
are reflexes, but some can be initiated voluntarily.
Respiratory
distress
syndrome
(RDS),
a
disease
caused by very high surface tension in the alveolus that
often leads to death among premature infants,
was rather common in the 1950s. Since then,
treatments for RDS have improved greatly (see
W h a t a H e a lth P rovider S ees).
apnea
(AP-ne-a) Tem-
porary cessation of
breathing.
Modified respiratory movements Table 13.1
Movement
Description
Stimulus for Reflex
Coughing
A long-drawn and deep inhalation followed by a strong exhalation that
suddenly sends a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages
A foreign body lodged in the larynx, pharynx,
or epiglottis
Sneezing
Spasmodic contraction of muscles or exhalation that forcefully expels
air through the nose and mouth
An irritation of the nasal mucosa
Hiccupping
Spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm followed by a spasmodic
closure of the larynx, which produces a sharp sound on inhalation
Irritation of the sensory nerve endings of the
gastrointestinal tract
Yawning
A deep inhalation through the widely opened mouth producing an
exaggerated depression of the mandible
Drowsiness, fatigue, or someone else's yawn-
ing; precise cause is unknown
Sighing
A long-drawn and deep inhalation immediately followed by a shorter
but forceful exhalation
Emotional
Sobbing
A series of convulsive inhalations followed by a single prolonged
exhalation
Emotional
Crying
An inhalation followed by many short convulsive exhalations, during
which the vocal cords vibrate; accompanied by characteristic facial
expressions and tears
Emotional
Laughing
The same basic movements as crying, but the rhythm of the move-
ments and the facial expressions usually differ from those of crying
Emotional
CONCEPT CHECK
1.
What
steps are involved in a normal inhalation?
3.
What
is the difference between diaphragmatic
2.
What
is the difference between inspiratory ca-
breathing and costal breathing?
pacity and inspiratory reserve volume?
380 CHAPTER 13
The Respiratory System
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