Lung volum es and cap acities • Figure 13.4
The volumes of air and lung capacities associated with breathing, deep inhalation, and
deep exhalation can be measured with a spirometer and seen in a spirogram.
a.
Pulmonary function tests use
a
spirometer to generate
a
spirogram.
Note that spirograms
are read
from right
to
left.
Minute ventilation (MV)
is the
total volume of air inhaled and
exhaled each minute. MV equals
the breathing rate times the tidal
Forced expiratory volume (FEV)
is the rate of
exhalation. FEV is usually measured as the volume
of air forcefully exhaled in 1 sec and is used to
diagnose
obstructive pulmonary diseases
.
Deep breath inhalation
Lung volumes and lung capacities are used to
diagnose restrictive pulmonary diseases.
combinations of specific
lung volumes.
I
various pulmonary diseases.
Disease
Lung volumes
and capacities
Rates of air
flow (e.g., FEV)
Obstructive pulmonary
diseases
affect the
airways and hinder the
flow of air.
• Asthma
• Chronic pulmonary
obstructive disease
(COPD)
• Emphysema
• Chronic bronchitis
Normal or
higher than
normal
Lower than
normal
Restrictive pulmonary
diseases
affect the
structure of the lungs
and lim it the capacity
of the lungs to expand.
• Pulmonary fibrosis
• Sarcoidosis
• Pulmonary edema
Lower than
normal
Normal
Breathing involves Changes in Pressures and Volumes
379
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