Components and functions of the body's organ systems • Figure 1.2
Skin, hair, and nails provide an outer
covering that protects the internal systems,
senses the outside environment, regulates
body temperature, and eliminates some
Bones and joints provide a framework for
all the organs and systems of the body.
Bones also produce blood cells and
Muscles move the parts of the framework
and provide force for various functions.
The brain, spinal cord, and nerves rapidly sense
Various glands communicate chemi-
the internal and external environments, process
cally with target organs and coordinate
information, and enable the various systems to
numerous body functions.
communicate and coordinate.
The heart and blood vessels form a pumping
system that delivers oxygen and nutrients to all
cells and tissues, while removing carbon
dioxide and wastes. Blood components also
help fight disease
acidity of body
4 CHAPTER 1
Organization of the Human Body