InSight
H IV /A ID S
Figure 12.13
THE PLANNER^
As HIV reproduces, the virus slowly
destroys the body's T cells.
a.
Main symptoms of AIDS
Initially, HIV-infected patients exhibit flu-like
symptoms, including the following:
• Fever
• Fatigue
• Headache
• Rash
• Sore throat
• Joint pain
• Swollen lymph nodes
• Night sweats (50% of cases)
When HIV progresses to AIDS, patients become
susceptible to many opportunistic infections,
tumors, and dementia.
Video
Neurological
• Encephalitis
• Meningitis
Eyes
• Retinitis
Lungs
1
Pneumocystis
pneumonia
• Tuberculosis
(multiple organs)
• Tumors
Skin
• Tumors
Gastrointestinal
• Esophagitis
• Chronic diarrhea
• Tumors
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
|2
b.
HIV
slowly destroys the body’s T cells as it reproduces.
1200
1100
1000
900
T cell count
800
(cells/mm3)
700
• — •
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Primary
Acute HIV syndrome
infection
Wide distribution of virus
Seeding of lymphoid organs
Death
HIV RNA copies
1
q
5
per ml plasma
Weeks
Years
c.
Treatment of HIV
infection
There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but two categories of drugs help
extend the lives of many HIV-infected people:
1. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors block the action of HIV’s
reverse transcriptase enzyme from making DNA copies of the
viral RNA. These drugs include zidovudine (ZDV, previously
AZT), didansoine (ddl), and stavudine (d4T). Trizivir is a
combination of three reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
2. Protease inhibitors block the actions of HIV’s protease, which
cuts host proteins into pieces to assemble the coat of new HIV
virus particles. Protease inhibitors include nelfinavir, saquina-
vir, ritinovir, and indinavir.
Highly active antiretroviral
therapy
(HAART)
is an effective but
expensive combination of two different reverse transcriptase
inhibitors and one protease inhibitor.
previous page 398 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online next page 400 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off