Organization
of
the Human
Body
I
fyoulookatacity,you can see that it operates on
many levels. While the heart of any city is its people,
the city itself has streets and buildings, which may be
organized into different regions or neighborhoods. Each
region may have different functions, such as downtown
business centers, industrial areas, residential neighbor-
hoods, parks, and so on. For example, New York City has
regions that include The Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten
Island, and Manhattan. Manhattan can be divided further
into areas such as a financial center, a garment district,
a port, Central Park, and residential neighborhoods. The
city must provide different services to its neighborhoods,
including water, sewage, electricity, gas, transportation
systems, police and fire protection, and garbage collec-
tion. Finally, to find your way around any city, you need a
road map that has directions and includes the names of
streets, major buildings, and attractions.
The human body can be likened to a city. Just as
people are the heart of a city, cells are the heart of the
body. Like a city’s regions, the body contains specialized
areas (organs) to accomplish various functions. Just as
a city provides services to its various regions, your body
has organ systems that provide services such as oxygen
delivery, waste removal, and protection against foreign
organisms. The road map you use to find your way
around the human body— providing knowledge of its
various directions and anatomical regions— is the topic
of this chapter.
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