A common medical blood test • Figure 10.9
5
Analysis of Blood Components Can Tell
Much About an Individual's Health 299
• Blood samples can be taken from multiple places by finger-
stick, venipuncture, or arterial stick.
• Four common blood tests to study the formed elements can
be conducted on blood samples for diagnostic purposes:
hematocrit (described here), reticulocyte count, differential
white blood cell count, and complete blood count (CBC).
These tests are used to screen for a variety of conditions,
including anemia, polycythemia, leukemia, and various
infections.
• Tests can also be done to determine the chemical composi-
tion of the liquid component of blood. Some of these tests
check whether the blood can clot properly. Because these
clotting studies require plasma for the testing, the blood
must be collected into a tube that contains an anticoagulant
to ensure that the blood remains in a fluid form. Tests that
determine the level of various chemicals in the blood are
done using serum. Serum comes from a blood sample that
has been allowed to clot.
HEMATOCRIT TESTS
Measures:
Percentage of red blood cells
Uses:
Diagnosis of anemia, polycythemia,
or abnormal states of hydration
Normal values: 38-42% (avg 42) in females;
40-54% (avg 47) in males
Abnormal Indicators
High
Low
polycythemia
anemia
Key Terms
• agglutinate 296
• anemia 300
• antibody 296
• antigen 296
• basophil 290
• biconcave 288
• blood clotting 294
• blood group 296
• blood type 296
• clotting factor 294
• coagulation 294
• embolus 294
• eosinophil 290
• erythrocyte 288
• erythropoiesis 292
• erythropoietin 292
• fibrin 294
• fibrinogen 294
• fibrinolysis 294
• formed elements 288
• hemoglobin 290
• hemolysis 296
• hemopoiesis 291
• hemorrhage 294
• hemostasis 294
• homogeneous 288
• leukemia 300
• leukocyte 290
• leukocytosis 292
• lymphocyte 290
• lymphoid stem cell 291
• megakaryocyte 290
• monocyte 290
• myeloid stem cell 291
• neutrophil 290
• plasma 288
• plasmin 294
• plasminogen 294
• platelet 290
• platelet plug 294
• pluripotent stem cell 291
• polycythemia 300
• red blood cell (RBC) 288
• reticulocyte 292
• serum 300
• thrombus 294
• vascular spasm 294
• white blood cell (WBC) 290
304 CHAPTER 10
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
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