Values and interpretations of four common tests are shown.
(Note that not all components of a complete blood count (CBC) have been included.)
Common medical blood tests • Figure 10.9
HEMATOCRIT TESTS
Measures:
Percentage of red blood cells
Uses:
Diagnosis of anemia, polycythemia,
or abnormal states of hydration
Normal values: 38-42% (avg 42) in females;
40-54% (avg 47) in males
RETICULOCYTE TESTS
Measures:
Percentage of reticulocytes
Uses:
Assessment of rate of
erythropoiesis
Normal values: 0.5-1.5%
Abnormal Indicators
Abnormal indicators
High
Low
High
Low
polycythemia
anemia
Malfunctioning red
Bleeding,
bone marrow (with
hemolysis, or
anemia), nutritional
iron deficiency
deficiency, leukemia,
or pernicious anemia
DIFFERENTIAL
WBC
COUNT
COMPLETE
BLOOD COUNT
Measures: Percentage of
Levels of various
each type of WBC
formed elements: Information about
in sample of 100
formed elements
Uses:
Assesses immune
Uses:
Diagnosis of
status
various conditions
Type
WBC
%
Abnormal indicators
Cell type/
Value
Abnormal indicators
High
Low
units
High
Low
Neutrophils
60-70
Bacterial
Radiation,
RBC count
Males:
Polycythemia,
Hemorrhage,
infection, burn,
drugs, vitamin
(#/pl)
5.4 million
hypoxia, congenital
anemia*
stress
B12 deficiency
Female:
4.8 million
heart disease*
Eosinophils
2-4
Parasitic
Drugs, stress,
Hemoglobin
Males:
Polycythemia,
Hemorrhage,
infection,
Cushing’s
(g/dl)
14-18
hypoxia, congenital
anemia*
allergic
syndrome
Females:
heart disease*
reaction,
autoimmune
12-16
disease, or
adrenal
WBC count
5000-
Acute or
Anemia, viral
insufficiency
(#/pl)
10,000
chronic infections,
trauma, leukemia,
stress*
infections*
Basophils
0.5-1
Allergy,
Pregnancy,
Platelets
150,000-
Cancer, trauma,
Anemia,
leukemia,
stress, hyper-
(#/pl)
400,000
cirrhosis
allergic
cancer
thyroidism
conditions,
hemorrhage
Lymphocytes
20-25
Viral infection,
Immuno-
Hematocrit
(See panel
leukemia,
suppression,
(%)
at top left)
immune disease
prolonged
severe illness,
high steroid
levels
Monocytes
3-8
Viral/fungal
Rare
Differential
(See panel
infection,
tuberculosis,
leukemia
WBC
at bottom left)
'indicated by increased RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit
^indicated by decreased RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit
*see notes under differential WBC
Analysis of Blood Components Can Tell Much About an individual's Health 301
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