THE PLANNER^
b. ABO blood groups
BLOOD TYPE
TYPE A
TYPE B
TYPE AB
TYPE O
Red blood cells
Plasma
A antigen
B antigen
Anti-B
Anti-A
antibody
antibody
c.
Antigen-antibody reactions cause problems
between mother and child with
Both A and B antigens
Neither
A nor B antigen
Neither
antibody
anti-B antibodies
Rh blood group and hemolytic disease of the newborn:
Rh+ - people whose RBCs have Rh antigen
Rh- - people whose RBCs do not have Rh antigen
Rh-
mother
/ Placenta
First
Rh+
k ' J
fetus
'Rh+
V*
antigens
Second
Rh+
fetus
1.
First pregnancy:
Baby’s Rh+ antigens
leak through the
placenta to Rh-
mother and nothing
happens (Mom has no
anti-Rh antibodies).
2.
Between
pregnancies:
Mother develops
anti-Rh antibodies to
baby’s Rh antigens.
3. Second pregnancy:
Mother’s anti-Rh
antibodies attack Rh+
baby’s RBCs, thereby
causing hemolysis
(hemolytic disease of
the newborn).
Note: Anti-A and anti-B antibodies do not cross the placenta, so
ABO incompatibility between mother and baby is not a problem.
Matching the ABO Group Allows Safe Transfusions 297
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