kr
The Urinary System and
Fluid, Electrolyte, and
Acid-Base Balance
v
The Reproductive Systems
The Urinary System Plays a Vital Role in
Maintaining Homeostasis
438
The Kidneys Do the Major Work of the Urinary
System
438
The Kidney Is a Complex Filter
440
Urine Formation Involves Three Processes
and Helps Maintain the Blood's Volume
and Composition
444
Glomerular Filtration Moves a Large Amount
of Fluid into the Glomerular Capsule
446
Reabsorption and Secretion Occur Along
the Length of the Renal Tubule
447
The Nephron Loop Contributes to Water
Conservation in the Body
448
The Urinary Bladder Stores Urine and Expels
It from the Body
450
The Urinary Bladder is a Temporary Storage Area 450
Urethral Structure Varies Between the Sexes
451
Urination Is a Spinal Reflex
452
The Kidneys Regulate the Composition
of Body Fluids
453
Fluid Balance Depends Primarily on Electrolyte
Balance
454
Water Regulation Involves a Balance of Intake
and Loss
455
Water Levels Also Depend on Changes
in NaCl Levels
456
How Do Kidney Stones Form?
458
The Kidneys Help Maintain the Acid-Base
Balance of Body Fluids
458
Buffers Help to Maintain pH Levels Within
a Narrow Range
458
The Lungs and Kidneys Can Help Compensate
for Changes in pH
460
Large Changes in pH May Result in Acidosis
or Alkalosis
460
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Renal Failure and Dialysis
462
The Reproductive Organs Make, Deliver,
and Receive the Sex Cells
470
Male Reproductive Organs Make and Deliver Sperm 470
Sperm Production Begins During Puberty and
Continues Throughout Life
472
Female Reproductive Organs Provide the Site of
Fertilization and Nurture the Developing Embryo
476
The Female Reproductive Cycle Shows
That Timing Is Everything
480
Oogenesis Begins Before Birth
480
The Female Reproductive Cycle Has Several Phases 482
Fertilization Requires the Egg and Sperm
to Get Very Close to One Another
484
Fertilization Must Occur While Both the Egg
and Sperm Are Still Viable
484
Contraceptive Methods Interrupt Different Stages
of the Fertilization Process
485
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
The Male Birth Control Pill
487
Pregnancy Lasts from Fertilization to Delivery
488
During the Embryonic Phase, the Embryo Changes
from a Single Cell to a Differentiated Organism
488
Embryonic Germ Layers Differentiate to
Form the Various Body Components
490
The Fetal Period Is Devoted to Growth
and Refinement of Body Structures
492
Pregnancy Changes the Mother's Physiology
496
Hormones Are Important for Maintaining
the Pregnancy
496
Giving Birth Requires a Complex Series of
Hormonal Changes
498
Labor Has Several Stages
498
Lactation Provides Food for the Newborn
500
Aging Alters Reproductive Capacity
502
Contents xxix
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