Endocrine Glands Regulate
Other Key Body Functions
the major hormones of the adrenal gland
and explain their effects on the body.
the influence of the hypothalamus
and pituitary gland on the hormones of the
gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, and
pancreas, other endocrine glands control sev-
eral body functions, including chemical com-
position and volume of blood, metabolism, contractions of
smooth muscles and heart muscles, reproduction, and dai-
ly rhythms (circadian rhythms). These glands include the
adrenal glands, the gonads (ovaries and testes), and the
pineal gland, along with endocrine cells contained within
other organs. Let’s start with the adrenal glands.
the hormone secreted by the pineal
gland and its function.
the hormones secreted by endocrine cells
not located in endocrine organs and their sub-
Adrenal Glands Regulate
An adrenal gland sits on top of each of the kidneys (Figure
9.14) . Each gland consists of an outer cortex that surrounds
an inner medulla. The cortex secretes three types of ste-
roid hormones—mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and an-
drogens—each from different layers. The medulla secretes
epinephrine and norepinephrine. Let’s take a closer look at
each of these hormones, their effects, and their secretion.
T he stru c tu re o f th e ad ren al g lan d s • Figure 9.1 4
The adrenal glands rest on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts (cortex, medulla)
surrounded by a capsule. Cells within each part secrete different hormones.
b. Section through
Subdivisions of the
Endocrine Glands Regulate Other Key Body Functions