The Respiratory System
Respiratory Organs Move Air and
Exchange Gases
The Respiratory Organs Are Functionally
Divided into Upper and Lower
Respiratory Tracts
The Respiratory System Performs
Two Important Processes: Breathing
and Respiration
372
373
374
The Digestive System,
Nutrition, and Metabolism
Let’s Journey through the Digestive System
The GI Tract Is Supported by the Peritoneum,
and Each of Its Sections Has Four Layers
Digestion Begins in the Mouth
400
402
404
Breathing Involves Changes in
Pressures and Volumes
376
Muscles Contract and Relax to Move Air
into and out of the Lungs During Ventilation
377
Swallowing Involves Voluntary and Involuntary
Stages
405
The Stomach Begins Digestion in Earnest
406
The Small Intestine Is the Site of
Most Digestion and Absorption
408
Respiratory Health Is Sometimes Tested
The Large Intestine Absorbs Water
Using a Spirometer
378
and Eliminates Wastes
412
Special Terms Are Used to Describe
The Three Phases of Digestion Are Controlled
Breathing Patterns
380
by the Enteric Nervous System
414
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
381
Your Diet Contains Many Nutrients
416
Gases Are Exchanged at the Blood Capillaries
382
Diffusion Moves the Gases Across
the Capillary Membranes
382
Oxygen Is Transported Through the
Blood Attached to Hemoglobin
382
Most Carbon Dioxide Must Be Converted to
Bicarbonate to Be Moved to the Lungs
384
The Brain Controls Breathing
386
Structures of the Brainstem Regulate Breathing
386
The Breathing Control Centers Are
Influenced by Many Factors
388
Good Respiratory Health Is Essential
390
Respiratory Actions Change with Physical Activity
390
Diseases and Behavioral Activities Can
Also Affect the Breathing Process
391
Smoking Can Damage Lung Tissue
391
Nutrients Are Metabolized in a Number of
Ways
418
Carbohydrates Are Converted to Glucose
418
Cellular Respiration Creates ATP
418
Lipids Are Broken Down into Intermediates
of Cellular Respiration
420
Proteins Can Also Be Metabolized to Create ATP
421
Hormones and Chemical Levels
Regulate Metabolic Activities
421
Diabetes and Obesity Are Metabolic Disorders
422
Diabetes Is Like Prolonged Starvation
422
Obesity Is an Imbalance Between Energy
Intake and Energy Expenditure
424
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Dieting and Weight Loss
426
The Heat from Metabolism Must Be Regulated
427
xxviii Contents
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