Key Terms
• accommodation 239
• adaptation 229
• anterior cavity 236
• aqueous humor 236
• auditory (Eustacian) tube 241
• auditory ossicles 241
• auricle 241
• basal cell 232
• basilar membrane 243
• ceruminous gland 241
• choroid 237
• ciliary body 239
• cochlea 243
• cone 236
• cornea 236
• crista 244
• cupula 245
• dynamic equilibrium 244
• eardrum (tympanic mem-
brane) 241
• encapsulated nerve ending
229
• external auditory canal 241
• fibrous tunic 236
• fovea centralis 237
• ganglionic cell 236
• gustation 232
• gustatory hairs 234
• gustatory receptor 234
• gustatory sensory neurons
234
• hair bundle 245
• hair cell 243
• hair root plexus 229
• incus 241
• iris 236
• lacrimal fluid 235
• lacrimal gland 235
• lens 236
• lysozyme 235
• malleus 241
• Meissner corpuscle 229
• Merkel (tactile) disc 229
• nasal cavity 235
• nasal lacrimal duct 235
• neural tunic 236
• nociceptor 230
• odorant 232
• olfaction 232
• olfactory receptor 232
• opsin 239
• optic chiasm 240
• optic disc 237
• optic nerve 237
• optic tract 240
• organ of Corti 243
• ossicle 241
• otolithic membrane 244
• otolith 244
• oval window 243
• Pacinian corpuscle 229
• papillae 234
• perception 228
• photopigment 239
• photoreceptor 236
• posterior cavity 236
• primary gustatory area 234
• primary visual area 240
• proprioceptor 230
• pupil 236
• referred pain 230
• refraction 238
• retinal 239
• rhodopsin 239
• rod 236
• round window 241
• Ruffini corpuscle 229
• sclera 237
• semicircular canal 243
• sensation 228
• stapes 241
• static equilibrium 244
• supporting cell 232
• tastant 234
• taste pore 234
• transduce 236
• vascular tunic 236
• vestibular apparatus 243
• vestibular nucleus 245
• vestibule 241
• vestibulocochlear nerve
(CN VIII) 243
• vitreous body 236
• vitreous chamber 237
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Cindy likes to spin around. When she spins rapidly to the right
three times and stops, she feels dizzy. However, if she spins
rapidly to the right three times and then rapidly to the left three
times and stops, she does not feel as dizzy. How can you explain
this phenomenon with respect to the vestibular system?
2. After years of working around machinery in a noisy factory,
John cannot hear high-frequency sounds. However, he can
hear low-frequency sounds. Tests show that his vestibuloco-
chlear nerves are functioning at all frequencies. Explain what is
wrong with John's hearing and where the damage is located.
3. One patient in the ER
has cut his hand and can feel localized
pain. A second patient is having kidney stones and feels pain
distributed around his back and waist. How can you explain
the differences in the patients' experiences of pain?
4. Jim is a student in middle school who sits in the rear of the
classroom. He complains to his mother that he can no longer
read things written on the board or overhead projector. Any
writing looks blurry to him. What type of visual abnormality
does Jim have, and how could it be corrected?
5. Rita has allergies that give her a stuffy nose and painful sinus
pressure. When she has these allergic episodes, she cannot
smell anything, and her sense of taste seems to be altered as
well. Explain what is happening to her to diminish her senses
of smell and taste.
6. Robert was denied admission to the U.S. Naval Academy be-
cause he could not see the color red. What part of his eyes is
affected by this abnormality?
248 CHAPTER 8
Somatic Senses and Special Senses
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