The Endocrine System
Hormones Act on Target Cells
254
The Endocrine System Has Many Components
254
Steroid Hormones Go Directly into the Target Cell
255
Nonsteroid Hormones Bind to Receptors
on the Target Cell Membrane
256
Endocrine Glands Regulate Key Body Functions
257
The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus Control
Many Endocrine Glands
258
The Thyroid Gland Regulates Metabolism
262
Parathyroid Glands Regulate Calcium Levels
264
Pancreatic Endocrine Cells Regulate Blood
Sugar Levels
266
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Gestational Diabetes
268
Endocrine Glands Regulate Other Key
Body Functions
269
Adrenal Glands Regulate Many Functions
269
The Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, and
Gonads Regulate Reproduction
272
The Pineal Gland Sets Daily Cycles
274
The Endocrine System Coordinates the Stress
Response
275
The Stress Response Has Three Stages
275
Several Organs and Hormones are Involved
in the Stress Response
277
Aging Alters the Endocrine System
278
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
Blood Functionally Connects the Body
Organ Systems
288
Plasma Is the Liquid Portion of Blood
288
Formed Elements Consist of the Many
Types of Blood Cells
288
Blood Cells Are Created in the Bone Marrow
291
All the Formed Elements Develop from
Red Bone Marrow Stem Cells
291
When Blood Cells Are Destroyed, Many
of Their Components Are Recycled
292
Blood Clotting Controls Bleeding
294
Hemostasis Helps Minimize Blood Loss
294
Fibrinolysis Creates Space for the Final
Repair of a Damaged Vessel
294
Matching the ABO Group Allows Safe
Transfusions
296
ABO and Rh Blood Groups Are Important
in Determining Blood Compatibility
296
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Artificial Blood
298
Hemolytic Disease of a Newborn Is Due to
an Rh Incompatibility
299
Analysis of Blood Components Can Tell
Much About an Individual’s Health
299
Blood for Testing Can Be Obtained in Several Ways
299
Blood Chemical Composition Testing
Uses Either Plasma or Serum
300
Blood Tests Are Often Used to Diagnose Disease
300
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