The Structure of Bone Controls Function and
Growth
114
The Skeleton Is More Than Just a Supportive
Framework for the Body
114
A Bone's Structure Determines Its Function
114
Bone Is Formed During Ossification and
Maintained by Remodeling
117
Bones Repair After Fracture by a
Four-Stage Process
120
The Skeletal System
The Muscular System
The Body Contains Three Types
of Muscular Tissues
Skeletal Muscle Tissue Is Attached to the Bones
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Is Found Only in the Heart
Smooth Muscle Tissue Is Found in Most
Body Organs
Muscles Are Built to Move
154
154
155
155
156
The Axial Skeleton Is Composed of 80 Bones
122
The Head Is Formed by the Skull and Hyoid Bones 123
The Skull Has Many Unique Features
126
The Vertebral Column Contains 26 Vertebrae
127
Bones of the Upper Body Form the Thorax
and Arms
130
The Ribs and Sternum Form the Framework
for the Thorax
131
The Scapula and Clavicle Form the Pectoral Girdle
132
Each Arm Contains 22 Bones
132
Bones of the Lower Body Form the
Pelvic Girdle and Legs
132
Coxal Bones and Sacrum Form the Walls of
the Pelvis
132
The Design of the Lower Limb Is Similar to That
of the Upper Limb
133
Foot Structure Helps Disperse Body Weight
and Absorb Shock
133
Articulations Form Where Bones Join Together
136
Articulations are Classified by Structure or Function
136
Synovial Joints Have Complex Structures
136
Freely Movable Joints Are Capable of a
Variety of Motions
138
Synovial Joints Are Classified by Type of Movement 140
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES: Knee Injuries 143
Muscles Are Composed of Bundles of Muscle
Fibers
157
The Sliding Filament Theory Explains Muscle
Contraction
158
Nerve Signals Initiate the Contraction of
Skeletal Muscle
160
Muscle Contraction Comes in Many Forms:
Twitch, Tetanus, Isotonic, and Isometric
163
Smooth Muscle Tissue Is in the Walls
of Most Organs
165
Smooth Muscle Tissue Looks Very Different
from Skeletal Muscle
165
Smooth Muscle Tissue Comes in Two Varieties:
Visceral and Multi-Unit
166
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Forms the
Muscular Wall of the
Heart
167
Skeletal Muscles Are Grouped Based
on Location and Action
168
Skeletal Muscles Work in Groups
168
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES: Exercise
Maintains Healthy Muscles
169
Muscles of the Head and Neck Control Facial
Expressions, Allow You to Speak and Chew,
and Enable Your Eyes to Open, Close, and Move 173
Muscles of the Thorax, Abdomen, Neck, and
Back Perform Many Functions
175
Skeletal Structure Changes with Aging
144
Bone Mass Decreases as You Get Older
144
Arthritis Develops in Joints Due to Wear and Tear 145
Muscles of the Shoulder and Upper Limb Are
Concerned with Movement
179
Muscles of the Lower Body Move the Thigh
and Legs
182
xxiv Contents
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