Contents
Preface
v
Organization of the Human Body
Body Structure Is Closely Linked to Function
at All Levels of Organization
2
Levels of Organization Extend from Atoms
to the Human Organism
3
Every Body System Performs Vital Functions
3
All Living Things Carry Out Common
Life Processes
6
HCl
KOH
KCl
Life Processes Include Every Function
Necessary to Sustain Life
6
Homeostatic Balance Maintains Relatively
Stable Conditions Inside the Body
8
Aging and Disease Upset Homeostasis
10
Anatomical Road Maps Guide Navigation
Through the Body
10
The Body Can Be Divided Into Specific
Anatomical Regions
10
Directional Terms Describe the Location
of Body Parts Relative to Each Other
11
Body Cavities Contain Organs and
Other Anatomical Structures
12
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Medical Imaging
15
Introductory Chemistry
Matter Is Made of Elements and Atoms
22
Matter Is Different from Energy
22
Matter Is Made of Chemical Elements
23
Elements Are Made of Atoms
24
The Building Blocks of Matter Fit Together
to Make Ions and Compounds
26
Atoms Combine to Form Compounds:
Ionic and Covalent
26
There Are Different Types of Chemical Reactions
31
Life Uses Important Chemicals
31
Water, Acids, and Bases Make Up a Major
Part of Body Fluids
31
■ WHAT A HEALTH PROVIDER SEES:
Dehydration and Sports Drinks
34
Carbohydrates Are Major Energy Sources
for the Body
34
Lipids Store Energy and Comprise Cell
Membranes and Hormones
36
Proteins Have Many Functions
36
Enzymes Speed Up Chemical Reactions
39
Nucleic Acids Carry Genetic Instructions
40
xxii Contents
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