Basal ganglia and corpus
right and left hemispheres
and ends movements:
Anterior view of frontal section
The cerebral surface consists of
(cell bodies and
dendrites), while underneath is
(axons). The surface
is highly folded; each fold is called a
. The fissures between the
sulcus) and several large sulci divide
the cerebrum into four lobes.
ing eating, drinking, and body temperature, as well as
the autonomic and endocrine systems. The cerebellum
(Figure 7.10a) is located posterior to the brainstem,
controls the stability of muscle movements, and initi-
ates subconscious skeletal muscle movements associ-
ated with posture, balance, and rhythmic, repetitive
activities (like walking or running). Each of the two
hemispheres is in turn divided into four lobes (frontal,
parietal, temporal, occipital).
The cerebrum also contains the basal ganglia (Figure
7.10c) and neurons associated with the limbic system. The
cerebrum controls all sensory and voluntary motor func-
tions, thought processes, and memories through sensory
areas, motor areas, and association areas within the lobes.
A number of diseases are caused by impairment of brain
functions such as memory and reasoning; among these is
Alzheimer disease, which causes extensive damage to the
W h a t a H ea lth Provider Sees
on the next page).
The Central Nervous System Coordinates All Nervous Activity