Video
J
c.
Basal ganglia and corpus
✓ Frontal
/ plane
View
callosum
Longitudinal
fissure
Internal
capsule
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Cerebrum
Corpus callosum
connects
right and left hemispheres
Basal ganglia
- begins
and ends movements:
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Third ventricle
Optic tract
Anterior view of frontal section
The cerebral surface consists of
gray
matter
(cell bodies and
dendrites), while underneath is
white matter
(axons). The surface
is highly folded; each fold is called a
gyrus
. The fissures between the
gyri
(pi.)
are called
sulci
(singular:
sulcus) and several large sulci divide
the cerebrum into four lobes.
ing eating, drinking, and body temperature, as well as
the autonomic and endocrine systems. The cerebellum
(Figure 7.10a) is located posterior to the brainstem,
controls the stability of muscle movements, and initi-
ates subconscious skeletal muscle movements associ-
ated with posture, balance, and rhythmic, repetitive
activities (like walking or running). Each of the two
hemispheres is in turn divided into four lobes (frontal,
parietal, temporal, occipital).
The cerebrum also contains the basal ganglia (Figure
7.10c) and neurons associated with the limbic system. The
cerebrum controls all sensory and voluntary motor func-
tions, thought processes, and memories through sensory
areas, motor areas, and association areas within the lobes.
A number of diseases are caused by impairment of brain
functions such as memory and reasoning; among these is
Alzheimer disease, which causes extensive damage to the
brain (see
W h a t a H ea lth Provider Sees
on the next page).
The Central Nervous System Coordinates All Nervous Activity
203
previous page 238 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online next page 240 Craig Freudenrich, Gerard J  Tortora   Visualizing Anatomy and Physiology   2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off