Special Thanks
Special thanks to my wife, Theresa, for her patience with me during this project.
To my children— Lynne, Gerard Jr., Kenneth, Anthony, and Andrew— the wind beneath my wings.
About the Authors
Craig C. Freudenrich
is a science writer in Durham, NC where he writes various science articles, science educational materials,
and science education courses. He earned a bachelor's degree in biology from West Virginia University and a Ph.D. in physiology
from the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. He completed eight years of postdoctoral training in the Physiology
Division within the Department of Cell Biology at Duke University Medical Center. For more than 20 years, he has conducted
biomedical research in various fields including cell physiology, general physiology, neuroscience, and plant physiology.
Craig completed teacher training at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and taught high school sciences for Durham
Public Schools, Auldern Academy, and the Talent Identification Program at Duke University. He has experience teaching biology,
anatomy and physiology, physics, physical sciences, astrobiology, science of science fiction, and algebra.
Before becoming a freelance science writer, Craig was a science editor for the popular website
There, he
wrote numerous articles in biology, chemistry, physics, geology, astronomy, and space exploration. Craig is a member of the
National Association of Science Writers (NASW) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). Beyond science, Craig
has interests in medieval history, European martial arts, and fencing.
Gerard J. Tortora
is Professor of Biology and former Biology Coordinator at Bergen Community College in Paramus, New
Jersey, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as microbiology. He received his bachelor's degree in biology
from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his master's degree in science education from Montclair State College. He is a member
of many professional organizations, including the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the American Society of
Microbiology (ASM), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), National Education Association (NEA), and
the Metropolitan Association of College and University Biologists (MACUB).
Above all, Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations. In recognition of this commitment, Jerry was the recipient of
MACUB's 1992 President's Memorial Award. In 1996, he received a National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development
(NISOD) excellence award from the University of Texas and was selected to represent Bergen Community College in a campaign
to increase awareness of the contributions of community colleges to higher education.
Jerry is the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals, a calling that often requires an additional 40
hours per week beyond his teaching responsibilities. Nevertheless, he still makes time for four or five weekly aerobic workouts
that include biking and running. He also enjoys attending college basketball and professional hockey games and performances
at the Metropolitan Opera House.
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