sphenoidal sinus 123
spongy bone 117
squamous suture 126
styloid process 123
synovial fluid 136
synovial joint 136
synovial membrane 136
temporal bone 123
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) 123
thoracic vertebrae 127
tibial tuberosity 133
true ribs 131
vertebral arch 127
vertebral foramen 127
xiphoid process 131
yellow bone marrow 114
zygomatic bone 126
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions
1. Mrs. Thompson is 78-year-old woman. Since her 45th birthday,
she has been getting measurably shorter every 5 years. Her
back has become hunched, she can no longer stand, and she
has constant pain in her back and pelvis. What is happening to
2. Jimmy jumped off the garage roof, onto the hard pavement of
his driveway. When his mother arrived, she saw the end of a
bone sticking out of his arm. The end of the bone looked jagged
but not shattered. (An X-ray later confirmed this finding.) What
bone did Jimmy break, and what type of fracture did he have?
3. Mr. Sanders is suffering from a disease in which the levels of
all of his blood cells are decreased. What part of his bones is
likely affected? Explain.
4. Mrs. Hill has been having trouble walking. She complains of
pain and swelling in her right knee. Images of her knee show
that her medial meniscus is worn down to less than 5% of its
normal thickness. Her doctor recommends that she have a
total knee replacement. Provide a simple explanation of what
will happen during the surgery.
5. Kelly has just been diagnosed with osteoporosis at age 25. An
MRI revealed a tumor on her parathyroid gland, and her blood
levels of PTH are two to three times normal. How can she have
osteoporosis at such a young age?
What is happening in this picture?
Many expectant couples are excited to see their unborn
baby's image in a sonogram. At about 16 weeks, the skel-
eton looks like this.
1. W hat is in the gap s betw een
2. H ow do these g ap s eventually becom e bone?
3. H ow did the fetus's skull form?