^ 6 Skeletal Structure Changes with Aging 144
• As you age, your bones lose calcium, which can result in
demineralization and decreased production of extracellular
matrix proteins (for example, collagen). If this is severe, it
can lead to osteoporosis, which causes bones to become
brittle and susceptible to fractures.
• As you get older, synovial joints produce less fluid, articular
cartilage thins, and ligaments become less flexible.
• Severe degeneration of hip and knee joints can be treated
using hip and knee replacement; shown are implanted com-
ponents of a total knee replacement.
Knee replacement • Figure 5.18c
Femur
Femoral —
component
Tibial--------
component
Tibia
Patellar
component
Key Terms
• acetabulum 132
• alveolar process 123
• amphiarthrosis 136
• angular movement 139
• appendicular skeleton 122
• arch 133
• arthritis 145
• articular cartilage 136
• articulation 114
• autoimmunity 145
• axial skeleton 122
• ball-and-socket 141
• body 127
• bone 116
• bone remodeling 119
• bursae 136
• calcaneus 133
• calcification 117
• calcitriol 119
• canaliculus 117
• carotid foramen 123
• carpal 132
• cartilaginous joint 136
• central canal 117
• cervical vertebrae 127
• clavicle 132
• coccyx 127
• compact bone 117
• concentric lamellae 117
• conchae123
• condylar process 123
• condyloid 141
• coracoid process 132
• coronal suture 126
• cranial bone 123
• cribriform plate 123
• crista galli 123
• diarthrosis 136
• endochondral ossification 117
• ethmoid bone 123
• ethmoidal sinus 123
• external auditory meatus 123
• facial bone 123
• false rib 131
• femur 133
• fibrous capsule 136
• fibrous joint 136
• fibula 133
• flat bone 114
• floating rib 131
• fontanel 127
• foramen 123
• foramen magnum 123
• foramen ovale 123
• frontal bone 123
• glenoid cavity 132
• gliding 138
• haversian canal 117
• hemopoiesis 114
• hinge 140
• humerus 132
• hyoid bone 127
• inferior nasal conchae 126
• interosseous membrane 136
• intramembranous
ossification 117
• irregular bone 114
• joint 114
• lacrimal bone 126
• lacuna 117
• lambdoid suture 126
• laminae 127
• ligament 136
• long bone 114
• lumbar vertebrae 127
• mandible 123
• manubrium 131
• mastoid process 123
• maxillae 123
• maxillary sinus 123
• meninges 123
• menopause 144
• mental foramina 126
• mesenchyme 117
• metacarpal 132
• metatarsal 133
• nasal bone 123
• obturator foramina 132
• occipital bone 123
• occipital condyle 123
• optic foramina 123
• osseous tissue 116
• ossification 117
• osteoarthritis 145
• osteoblast 116
• osteoclast 117
• osteocyte 117
• osteogenic cell 117
• osteon 117
• osteoporosis 144
• palatine bone 123
• paranasal sinus 126
• parathyroid gland 119
• parietal bone 123
• patella 133
• pectoral girdle 132
• pedicle 127
• pelvic brim 132
• pelvic girdle 132
• pelvis 132
• phalanges 132
• pivot 141
• plane 140
• pubic symphysis 132
• radius 132
• red bone marrow 114
• reduction 120
• rheumatoid arthritis 145
• rib 130
• rotation 139
• sacrum 127
• saddle 141
• sagittal suture 126
• scapula 132
• sella turcica 123
• short bone 114
• special movement 139
• sphenoid bone 123
148 CHAPTER 5
The Skeletal System
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