Angular movements
—These movements are increases
or decreases in the angle of articulating bones. Angular
movements include flexion, extension, hyperextension,
abduction, adduction, and circumduction (Figure 5.14a).
Rotation
—In this type of movement, a bone revolves
around its own longitudinal axis.
Medial rotation
(internal
rotation) turns the body part towards the midline, while
lateral rotation
(external rotation) turns it away from the
midline (Figure 5.14b).
Special
movements
—These
movements
occur
only
at
certain joints.
Such movements
include
elevation,
depression, protraction, retraction, inversion, eversion,
dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, and pronation
(Figure 5.14c).
a.
Angular movements
(continued)
b. Rotation:
a
bone revolves around its
own
longitudinal axis
c.
Special movements: occur only
at
certain joints
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