The Axial Skeleton Is Composed of 80 Bones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1.
Name
the cranial and facial bones and describe
their locations.
2.
Describe
the unique features of the skull.
3.
Identify
the regions and structural features of
the vertebral column.
T
he 206 bones in the adult human skeleton are
divided into two categories: the axial skele-
ton (skull, vertebral column, and thorax) and
the appendicular skeleton (shoulders, up-
per limbs, pelvis, and lower limbs)(Figure 5.7). Together,
the bones of the skull and vertebral column make up 55 of
the 80 bones in the axial skeleton. Let’s look first at the
bones of the skull.
Axial and a p p en d icu lar sk e le to n s * Figure 5.7
The bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thorax form the axial skeleton. The bones
of the shoulders, upper limbs, pelvis, and lower limbs form the appendicular skeleton.
Division of
the Skeleton
Structure
Axial Skeleton
Skull
Cranium
Face
Hyoid
Auditory ossicles
Vertebral column
Thorax
Sternum
Ribs
Number of
Division of
Bones
the Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
8
14
1
6
26
1
24
Structure
Pectoral (shoulder) girdles
Clavicle
Scapula
Upper limbs
Hum erus
Ulna
Radius
Carpals
M etacarpals
Phalanges
Pelvic (hip) girdle
Hip or pelvic bone
Lower limbs
Number
of Bones
2
2
2
2
2
16
10
28
2
r:
7
Subtotal = 80
Fem ur
2
Patella
2
Fibula
2
Tibia
2
Tarsals
14
M etatarsals
10
Phalanges
28
Subtotal = 126
Total in an adult skeleton = 206
122 CHAPTER 5
The Skeletal System
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