InSight
B u rn s
Figure 4.9
THE PLANNER^
Anterior
trunk
18%
Burns vary in type and severity, depending on which skin layers are affected, the
degree of tissue damage, and the extent of the burned surface area. First- and
second-degree burns are often referred to as partial-thickness burns. Third- and
fourth-degree burns are called full-thickness burns; fourth-degree burns (not shown
in this figure) are burns that damage additional soft tissue underlying the skin, such
as muscle and tendons.
Rule of nines is used to estimate the
surface area affected by burns in an adult
Anterior head -----
and neck
4.5%
Anterior shoulders
arms, forearms,
and hands
9%
Anterior thighs,
legs, and feet
18%
Anterior and
posterior head
and neck
9%
Anterior and
posterior shoulders,
arms, forearms,
and hands
+
18%
Anterior and
posterior trunk
+
36%
Perineum
+ 1%
Anterior and
posterior thighs,
legs, and feet
+
36%
100%
Anterior view
In which type of burn have more layers of the skin been
damaged?
a. First-degree
b. Second-degree
c. Third-degree
d. All typss of burns affect the same number of skin layers.
Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous
l
ayer
Second-degree burn
• Pain
• Hair follicles and glands are
• Redness
not injured
• Blisters
• Some skin function is lost
(epidermis separates from
• If there is no infection and
underlying layers and fluid
no grafting is required,
fills void)
heals within 3-4 weeks
• Edema
Third-degree burn
• Severe pain (burned
region is numb due to
nerve damage)
• Marked edema
• Marble-white to black
color
Most skin functions are lost
Tissue damage
Susceptible to infection
Slow healing
May require skin graft to promote
healing and minimize scarring
First-degree burn
• Mild pain
• Redness (no blisters)
• Skin functions normally
• Treatment: flush with cold
water to relieve pain
• Heals within 3-6 days
• Example: sunburn
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